The Ballistic Missile Defence has become political symbol as a weapon is a system to protect the homeland of concern countries to defend against attacks by one or a few missiles. In other words, it is a system, weapon, or technology that is moving around detection, tracking, interception, and destruction of attacking missiles. The Countries like United States of America, Russia, China, India, Israel and France have developed Ballistic Missile Defence. In 2010, NATO’s allies decided to develop a territorial Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) for collective defence.
Before moving on to the discussion, firstly know that “What is missile and Ballistic Missile?” Missile is a self-propelled precision-guided munitions system, as opposed to unguided self-propelled munitions, referred to as a rocket whereas Ballistic Missile is a missile with a high, arching trajectory, which is initially powered and guided but falls under gravity on to its target.
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Types of Ballistic Missile
1. Tactical ballistic missile:Range between about 150 km and 300 km
2. Theatre ballistic missile (TBM): Range between 300 km and 3,500 km
3. Intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) or long-range ballistic missile (LRBM): Range between 3,500 km and 5,500 km
4. Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM): Range greater than 5,500 km
5. Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM): Launched from ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs)
NATO's Integrated Air and Missile Defence System
1. Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence (TBMD): The prime objective of TBMD is to protect deployed NATO forces against ballistic missile threats (up to 3, 000 Kilometre range)
2. BMD for the protection of NATO European territory, populations and forces: During Lisbon Summit (November 2010) of NATO’s leaders, decided to develop a territorial BMD capability. The Allies of NATO declared Initial Operational Capability of NATO BMD in July 2016, which offers a stronger capability to defend Alliance populations, territory, and forces across southern NATO Europe against a potential ballistic missile attack. At the end of the summit, the unanimously BMD got green signal that full coverage and protection for all NATO European populations, territory and forces against the increasing threats posed by the proliferation of ballistic missiles.
Missile Defence Systems by Country
• Akash missile: It is a surface-to-air missile defence system develop by India
• Arrow missile: Designed by Israel
• Chu-SAM: Japan's JGSDF Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile
• HQ-9: It is China’s new generation medium- to long-range, active radar homing surface-to-air missile.
• Iron Dome: Developed by Israel
• KS-1: It is the first Chinese surface-to-air missile to adopt phased array radar.
• Medium Extended Air Defence System (MEADS): It is a tri-national development of the US, Germany, and Italy intended to replace the Patriot Missile System.
• MIM-104 Patriot: It is surface-to-air missile system developed by the United States of America.
• Hawk : It is medium range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system of USA
• RIM-161 Standard Missile 3: Developed by USA to intercept short-to- intermediate-range ballistic missiles.
• A-135 anti-ballistic missile system: Developed by Russia to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas.
• S-400 Triumf: It is anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia.
• Strategic Defence Initiative ("Star Wars"): Developed by USA
• Terminal High Altitude Area Defence (THAAD): It is a United States Army anti-ballistic missile system designed to shoot down short, medium, and intermediate range ballistic missiles in their terminal phase using a hit-to-kill approach.
• Vigilant Eagle Airport surface-to-air missile protection system: Developed by USA
• SAMP/T: Italian-French missile air defence system
• Skyguard: chemical laser-based area defence system proposed by Northrop Grumman
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