Climate and Soil Profile of Bihar

28-NOV-2016 18:01

    Bihar is located in the eastern part of the country. Here, we are giving the complete study material related to the ‘Climate and Soil Profile of Bihar’ for the aspirants who are preparing for the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state level examinations.

    Physical Features


          24°-20'-10" ~ 27°-31'-15" N


          83°-19'-50" ~ 88°-17'-40" E

    Rural Area

          92,257.51 sq. kms

    Urban Area

          1,095.49 sq. kms

    Total Area

          94,163.00 sq. kms

    Height above Sea-Level

          173 Feet

    Normal Rainfall

          1,205 mm

    Avg. Number of Rainy Days

          52.5 Days in a Year


    It is bounded by Nepal in the north, by Uttar Pradesh & Madhya Pradesh in the West, by Jharkhand in the south and West Bengal in the East. The Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganga which flows through the middle from west to east.  


    Climate of Bihar

    Bihar has continental climate with four distinct seasons. Northern part of the state experiences cooler compared to Southern part due to nearness to the Himalayas; Eastern part experiences humid climate due to nearness to the Himalayas while Western part have dry weather due to continental effects. Hence, the climate of Bihar is also called as ‘Modified Monsoon Climate’.

    Factors affecting climate of Bihar

    1. Location: Its location is tropical to sub-tropical. i.e. 22 degree north to 27 degree latitude.

    2. Distance from the Himalaya: It is located on the northern side of the state that makes significant bearing on the distribution of monsoon rainfall.

    3. Distance from the Sea: It is an entirely land–locked state, although the outlet to the sea through the port of Kolkata is not far away.

    Seasons in Bihar

    1. Cold weather season (December to February): It is characterised by low temperature, light northerly winds, clear skies and low humidity.  

    2. Hot weather season (March to May): Temperature ranges from 29 degree Celsius in the east to 40 degree Celsius in the west. The temperature in the east declines due to Nor’wester shower impact.

    3. Southwest monsoon (June to September): The burst of monsoon in Bihar is generally associated with the sudden arrival of intense cyclonic storms with thunder, lightning and torrential rain. It happen due to the low pressure develops over the plain while high pressure develops over the Northern Bay of Bengal Sea.

    4. Retreating southwest monsoon (October to November): This monsoon is locally called ‘Hathiya Nakshatra’ because it gets incessant rain causing floods.

    List of major Rivers in Bihar

    Soil Profile of Bihar

    Bihar is situated on the World's fertile alluvial plain of Gangatic Valley which extends from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to a few miles south of the river Ganges as it flows through the State from the west to the east. Variation in relief, precipitation, vegetation and parents rocks have resulted various soil variety due to the region relief features.

    Soils of Northern Plain

    Soil of this region is formed due to the deposition sediments brought by Gandak, Burhi Gandak, Mahananda, Kosi and Saryu rivers. Hence, the soil is further divided into three types:

    1. Piedmont Swamp Soil: It is swallowing to deep over bed rocks and pebbles. It is mostly clayey, rich in organic matter and neutral reaction. This type of soil is found in North-Western Chamaparan district.

    2. Terai Soil: It is grey to yellow in colour and neutral to moderately acidic in reaction. The soil of Terai is more fertile than upland terai. This is types of soil is found in the northern part of Bihar near by the border of Nepal and foothill of Himalaya.

    3. Gangetic Alluvium Soil: This soil is generally fertile in Bihar plain but to regular tillage without application of manure have costs low organic content. It is mostly loamy with varying thickness. It is thinner towards south and thicker towards north.

    Soils of Southern Plain

    This type of soil is found between North Ganga plain and Southern plateau and it formed due to the alluvium deposited by Sone, Punpun, and Falgu Rivers.

    1. Karail-Kewal Soil: It is heavy clay soil (alkaline feature) which is characterised by wet paddy lands or dhandhar. It is found in Rohtas to Gaya, Aurangabad, Jahanabad, Munger and Bhagalpur. It is best suited for rice and rabi crops like wheat, linseed, pulses and gram.

    2. Tal Soil: It is found in backwater belt of Ganga which is spread from Buxar to Banka district. The colour of the soil varies from light grey to dark grey and in texture from medium to heavy soil. Rabi or spring crops like wheat, khesari, gram, peas, masoor, and lentsil are harvested after water dries up and their yield is quite high.

    3. Balthar Soil: It is less fertile and has less water absorption capacity. Maize, jowar, bajra, and gram are chief crops. It is found in Kaimur plateau to Rajmahal hills in narrow belt.

    Soils of Southern Plateau

    There are two types of soil found in southern plateau of Bihar.

    1. Red and Yellow Soil: These soils are formed from the disintegration of igneous and metamorphosed rocks. They are less fertile and thus suitable for coarse crops and pulses. It is found in Banka, Gaya, Aurangabad, Jamui and Munger.

    2. Red Sandy Soil: This soil has higher percentage of sand that makes it less fertile and suitable for bajra and jowar crops.

    Waterfalls and Hot Springs in Bihar

    List of Soils in Bihar

    Types of Soil


    Properties of the soil



     Sandy, calcareous, yellow


    Patna and Munger

     Heavy soil


    Champaran and Kishangunj

     Sandy, calcareous, brown and light yellow


    Patna, Gaya and Rohtas

     Acidic and rich in lime


    Muzaffarpur, Purnia, Saharsa, Dabhanga and Bhagalpur

     Drank brown and fertile

    Bal Sundari

    Saharsa, East and West  Chamaparan

     Lime and alkaline

    History of Bihar: Ancient History and Modern History

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