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Comparison between Moderates and Extremist Leadership of Congress

Nov 17, 2017 11:43 IST
    Comparison between Moderates and Extremist Leadership of Congress

    The Indian National Congress was founded by AO Hume during the reign of Governor-General Lord Duffering. Its 1st session was held at Bombay in 1885 under the presidency of W C Banerjee. The Congress split into two parts-Moderates and Extremists in the year 1907 at the Surat Session of Congress, which was also popularly known as 'Surat Split'. Here, we are giving a comparison between Moderates and Extremist leadership of Congress with their aim, goal, methodology, ideology, social bases and the name of the leaders that will enhance the knowledge of the readers.

    Comparison between Moderates and Extremist Leadership of Congress




    Phase (Period)




    1. Aimed at administrative and constitutional reforms.

    2. Wanted more Indians in the administration and not to an end of British rule.

    3. They were secular in their attitudes, though not always forthright enough to rise above their sectarian interests. They knew the exploitative nature of British rule but wanted its reforms and not expulsion.

    1. Aim of getting Swaraj

    2. Wanted to end the tyranny rule of British.


    1. They believe in the efficacy of peaceful and constitutional agitation.

    2. They had great faith in the British sense of justice and fair play.

    3. They were inspired by the ideas of western philosophers like Mill, Burke, Spencer and Bentham. Moderates imbibed western ideas of liberalism, democracy, equity and freedom.

    1. They were radical in their approach. Demands of extremists were aggressive.

    2. They believed in atmashakti or self-reliance as a weapon against domination.

    3. Ideological inspiration was Indian History, Cultural heritage, national education and Hindu traditional symbols. Hence, they revived the Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to arouse the masses.

    4. They wanted to inculcate pride in India’s glorious culture to generate the spirit of nationalism. They invoked goddesses Kali or Durga for strength to fight for the motherland.

    5. Guided by four: principles Swarajya, Swadeshi, Boycott of foreign goods and National education to make the Indian aware.


    1. They follow the principles of 3P: Petition, Prayer and Protest.

    2. They believed in cooperation and reconciliation.

    1. They believe in militant methods.

    2. They follow the principle of atmashakti or self-reliance as a weapon against domination.

    3. Method of Non-Cooperation.

    4. They advocated democracy, constitutionalism and progress.


    A.O. Hume. W.C. Banerjee. Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta. Gopalakrishna Gokhale. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Badruddin Tyabji. Justice Ranade and G.Subramanya Aiyar

    Lala Lajpat Rai, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosem Rajnarayan Bose, and  Ashwini Kumar Dutt

    Social Support

    Zamindars and Upper middle classes in towns

    Educated middle and lower middle classes in towns


    1. Economic Critique of British Imperialism

    2. Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in Legislature

    3. Campaign for General Administrative Reforms

    4. Defence of Civil Rights

    1. Demand of Swaraj

    2. Mass movement

    3. Spread of national education

    4. Upliftment of downtrodden

    5. Nationalism

    6. Support to revolutionary movements

    7. Rise of communalism

    8. Encouraged co-operative organisation

    9. Set up charitable association for rural sanitation, preventive police duties, regulation of fairs and pilgrim gatherings for providing relief fund during famines and other calamities.


    In the above comparison of Moderates and Extremists leadership of Congress will give brief but concreate comparison that will help the readers to understand the evolution of National Movement and people’s awakening.

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