After his father Babur’s death, Humayun ascended the throne in 1530. Prior to becoming a king, he served as one of the commanders in his father’s army and also governed the province of Badakshan.
Humayun although charming, lacked the strong character of his father and wasted most of his time in merry making. He also faced challenges from all the directions. The prominent among them were;
• His younger brother Kamran posed a threat in north-west frontier of his kingdom.
• Afghans were also a threat in east.
• Bahadur Shah, the king of Gujarat and Malwa was also a danger.
The Rajputs were restrained by Babur not subdued, therefore they also posed a challenge to the new rule of Humayun.
The wars fought by Humayun
• Humayun invaded Kalinjer and forced its king into submission.
• He defeated Mahmud Lodi in the decisive battle of Dauhariya.
• He led the siege of Chunar in 1532 and forced Sher Shah into submission.
• Defeated Bhadur Shah, ruler of Gujarat and annexed almost entire region of Gujarat and Malwa.
Battle of Chausa
The battle of Chausa was fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in 1539. The Mughal forces under Humayun were handed out a crushing defeat by Sher Shah. Humayun narrowly escaped with his life.
Battle of Kannauj
Mughal forces once again clashed with Sher Shah in May 1540. This time Humayun was decisively defeated by Sher Shah. Humayun left India and went into exile. He remained in exile for the next 15 years.
He took refuge in the court of Shah of Iran (Persia) Tahmasp-I. Aided by the Shah, Humayun was able to win Kandahar from his brother Akasari. He also won Kabul from Kamran in 1547.
Humayun's return to power and his death
Humayun was blessed with an opportunity in 1545, when Sher Shah died. The successors of Sher Shah were not strong enough to hold the empire together. Humayun marched from Kabul to Delhi in 1555 and defeated Sikandar Suri in Punjab. Then he marched to Delhi and Agra and took easy possession of Delhi and Agra.
However, he could rule only for six months and died when he slipped down the stairs of his palace.
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