A mineral is an aggregate of two or more than two elements. It has a definite chemical composition, physical properties and is formed by either organic or inorganic processes. They generally occur in the Earth’s crust in the form of ore that contains many impurities. India is fairly rich in mineral resources, but their distribution is highly uneven. The mineral belts of India are given below:
Geographical location: Himalayan Regions
Minerals found: Coal is found in sub-Himalaya Eastern region. Hydrocarbons are found in Assam and Meghalaya. Natural gases are found in the foothills of Himachal Pradesh. Nickle, gold, silver, cobalt, lead etc. are also found in this belt.
Geographical location: The region comprising the Chhota Nagpur plateau and the Odisha plateau which covers the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha.
Minerals found: Manganese, bauxite, copper, coal, iron ore, mica, kyanite, chromite, beryl, apatite etc. This region accounts for the country’s 93 % of iron ore production and 84% of coal production.
Geographical location: Rajasthan and Gujarat along the Aravalli Range
Minerals found: Mostly non-ferrous minerals, uranium, aquamarine, petroleum, mica, beryllium, gypsum and emerald.
Geographical location: Karnataka, Kerala and Goa
Minerals found: Garmet, Iron Ore, clay, monazite sand are found in this belt
Geographical location: Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
Minerals found: Bauxite, uranium, manganese, limestone, mica, graphite, marble, coal and gems stone.
Geographical location: Karnataka plateau and Tamil Nadu
Minerals found: Bauxite and ferrous minerals (lacks in coal deposits) are found in this belt
In economic geography, the term mineral is used for any naturally occurring material that is mined and is of economic value. Hence, we say that India's rich mineral belt with relatively sizeable quantities is confined to the old, crystalline rock structures of plateaus and low hills of peninsular India.