List of Non tribal, Tribal and peasant movements during British India

The British came to India as trader but disintegration made them ruler and they introduces far-reaching changes into administrative, legal, social and religious arena. The foreign character of the British rule hurt the pride of locals which made revolutionary to expel the alien rule out of their homelands. Here is the list of Non tribal, Tribal and Peasant Movements during British India that will helps the aspirants in the preparations of examinations like UPSC, SSC, State Services, CDS, NDA, Railways etc.
Created On: Jun 27, 2016 16:16 IST
Modified On: Mar 15, 2017 09:51 IST

The British came to India as trader but disintegration made them ruler and they introduces far-reaching changes into administrative, legal, social and religious arena. The foreign character of the British rule hurt the pride of locals which made revolutionary to expel the alien rule out of their homelands. Here is the list of Non tribal, Tribal and Peasant Movements during British India that will helps the aspirants in the preparations of examinations like UPSC, SSC, State Services, CDS, NDA, Railways etc.

Jagranjosh

List of Non tribal, Tribal and peasant movements during British India

Name of the movement

Main cause(s)

Course of the

 movement and consequences

Sanyasi Rebellion

Area: Bengal

Year: 1763-1800

Displaced peasants, Demobilized Soldiers, disposed Zamindars, Participated led By Sanyasis.

It was made famous by Bankim Chandra Chaterjee.  In his novel: Anandmath

Revolt of Kattambomman

Area: Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu

Year: 1792-99

Leader:

Veerapandya Kattabomman (Ruler of panchalakurichi)

Attempts of the British to force Katabomman to accept their suzerainty and his refusal

Defiance of the British by Kattabomman for 7 years; his final capture and execution by the British (1779); annexation of his territory by the British (1779).

Rebellion of the Paiks

Area: Orissa

Year: 1804-06

Leader: First under the Raja of the Khurda and later under jagabandhu

British Occupation of Orissa (1803); resentment of the paiks (a militia class occupying rent free lands under the zamindars) against British land and land revenue policies

Unsuccessful attempt of the Raja of Khurd to organize a rebellion with the help of the Paiks, and confiscation of his territory by the British (1804) continuous unrest among the Paiks between 1804 & 1806; rise of the Paiks under Jagabandhu and their occupation of Puri after defeating the British force (1807); final suppression of the movement by force and conciliatory measures by British.

Revolt of Velu Thampi

Area: Travancore

Year: 1805-09

Leader: Velu Thambi (Dewan of Travancore)

Financial burden imposed on the state by the British through the subsidiary system; the high handedness of the British Resident there; and British demand for the removal of Dewan.

Beginning of war between the two sides (December 1805); fall of Trivendrum (Capital of Travancore) to the British (February 1809); death of Velu Thampi in forest due to serious injuries.

Revolt of Rao Bharmal

Area: Cutch and Kathiawar in Gujrat

Year: 1861-19

Leader: Rao Bharmal (Rule off Cutch)

Anti-British feeling due to British expansionist policy and their interference in internal affairs of Cutch.

Final defeat and deposal of Rao Bharmal; imposition of Subsidary treaty on Cutch.

Revolt of Ramosis

Area: Poona

Year: 1822-29

Leader: Chittur Singh and Umaji

British Annexation of Peshwa’s terntory(1818), resulting in large scale unemployment among Ramosis (under the Peshwa, they served in inferior ranks of police)

Revolt of the Ramosis under Chittur Singh (1822-24); their revolt under (Umaji (1822-24); establishment of peace by the British by pardoning all the crimes of the Ramosis and also by granting them lands and recruiting them as hill police.

Kittur Rising

Area: Kittur (near dharwar in Karnataka)

Year: 1824-29

Leader: Channamma and Rayappa

Death of Shivalinga Rudra Desai (chief) of Kittur (1824), leaving no male to recongnize the adopted issue; refusal of the British son as the Desai and assumption of administration of Kittur by British

Revoltt of Channamma (widow of late Desai) in 1824 and murder of English officers  including Thackeray (Collecter of Dharwar); conquest of Kitttur and its annexation by the British revolt of the people of Kittur under Rayappa who declared independence and set up the adopted boy as the Desai (1829); capture and execution of rayappa by British, and death of Channamma in Dharwar prison.

Sambalpur Outbreaks

Area: Sambalpur (Orissa)

Year: 1827-40

Leader: Surendra Sai

Frequent interference of British in the internal affairs of Sambalpur such as the issue of succession.

Death of Maharaja Sai (ruler) and outbreak of civil war; succession of Mohan Kumari (widow of the late Raja) with the support of the British and revolt of other claimants under Surendra Sai; final arrest and life imprisonment of Surendra Sai by British (1840).

Satara disturbances

Area: Satara (Maharashtra)

Year: 1840-41

Leader: Dhar Rao Pawar and Narsing Dattatreya Pettkar

Deposal and banishment of Pratap Singh, the popular ruler of Satara by the British

Revolt of the people of Satara under Dhar Rao in 1840; their revolt under Narsing and seizure of Badami in 1841; defeat and capture of Narsing by the British ( he was transported for life).

Bundela Revolt

Area: Sagar & Damoh (Bundelkhand)

Year: 1842

Leader: Madhukar Shah and Jawahir Singh

Resentment against British land revenue policy

Revolt of the Bundelas under Shah and Singh; murder of police officers and disruption of British administration; capture and execution of madhukar Shah and Singh by British.

Gadkari Rebellion

Area: Kolhapur (Maharashtra)

Year: 1844-45

Leader: Not Available

Assumption of direct administration of Kolhapur by British and reforms of D.K. Pandit; resentment of the Gadkaris (a militia class who had earlier held revenue free lands in retum for their services to the ruler against the revenue reforms.

Revolt of the Gadkaris, followed by a popular revolt in the city of Kolhapur and all other parts of the state of Kolhapur; final suppression of the movement by the British.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Satavandi Revolt

Area: Satavandi (Maharashtra)

Year: 1839-45

Leader: Phond Savant-(leading noble) and Anna Sahib (heir apparent)

Deposal of Khen Savant (ruler of satavandi) and appointment of a British officer to administer to administer the state; resentment of the people against British system of administration.

Revolt of the nobles and their attempts to drive away the British; transformation of the revolt into a popular movement with the common people all over the state rising in arms against the British; proclamation of martial law and suppression of the movement by the British.

Raju Rebellion

Area: Visakhapatnam (A.P.)

Year: 1827-33

Leader: Birabhadra Raju

Birabhadra was dispossessed of his estate by the British in return for a small amount of pension

Revolt of Birabhadra and his defiance of British authority till he was captured

Palakonda Outbreak

Area: Palakonda (Andhra Pardesh)

Year: 1831-32

Leader: Zamindar of Palakonda

Attachment of the property of the zamindar for non-payment of revenue

Revolt of the zamindar; suppression of the revolt of forfeiture of Palakonda estate to the British

Gumsur Outbreak

Area: Gumsur (Ganjam District)

Year: 1835-37

Leader: Dhananjaya Bhanja (Zamindar of Gumsur)

His failure to clear the arrears of revenue to the British

Revolt of zamindar; Appointment of Mr. Russel as the Commissioner; final suppression of the movement after larger scale military campaign in 1837

Parlakimedi Outbreak

Area: Parlakimedi (Orissa)

Year: 1829-35

Leader: Jagannath Gajapti Narayan Rao

Attachment of his zamindari for arrears by the British in 1827

Revolt of the zamindar, followed by a popular rising of the people; final suppression of the movement.

Movement of the Faraizis (In the later stages it was amalgamated with the Wahabi movement)

Area: East Bengal

Year: 1838-62

Leader: Shariatuallah and Muhammad Mushin (bêtter known as Dudhu Mian)

Degeneration of the Islamic society and loss of power to the British (Hence its aims were to remove abuses from Islamic society as well as to resore Muslim rule by expelling the British from India).

Foundation of the movement by Shariattullah of Faridpur, the movement under him was mainly religious in character, though he had declared British as enemies; his death in 1837; succession of Duhu Mian as the leader of the Movement, under him it became mainly political in nature; his success in mobilizing all the Muslim peasants of East Bengal against zamindars and indigo planters; his arrest and confinement in the Alipore jail.

Wahabi Movement

Area: North India and Deccan

Year: 1820-70

Leader: Saiyad Ahmad (Founder of the Movement)

Degeneration of Isalmic society and loss of power to the British (Aims – same as above)

Fight of the Wahabis against the British for 50 long years, and their final suppression by British after a series of trials in the 1860s.

Movement of Pagal panthis

Area: Sherpur (East Bengal)

Year: 1825-33

Leader: Karam Shah and Tipu

Resentment of the peasants against the operession of zamindars

Under Karam Shah (founder), It was mainly a religious movement, but under tipu (son of successor of Shah) it became a political movement against the oppressive zamindars and British, its final suppression by British after large scale military operations.

Kuka Movement

Area: Punjab

Year: 1854-72

Leader: Bhagat Jawahar Mal (founder)

Degeneration of Sikh religion and loss of sikh sovereignty

Though it started as a religious reform movement, it became a movement for the restoration of Sikh sovereignty after the annexation of Punjab by the British.

Indigo Revolt

Area: Bengal

Year: 1859-60

Leader: Digambar Biswas & Bishnu Biswas

Forced cultivation off Indigo without any proper remuneration

Planters could not withstand thee resistance of ryots, indigo cultivation virtually wiped out, Govt. response restrained & not harsh

Pabna Movement

Area: Bengal

Year: 1873

Enhanced rent Beyond the legal Limit & prevention of tenants from acquiring the occupancy rights

Govt. accepted the Demands & promised to protect Tenants. It enacted Bengal tenancy Act 1885.

Deccan Riots

Area: Poona & Ahmadnagar

Year: 1874

Riots against the moneylenders

Govt. repressed the Movt. It enacted Deccan Agriculture Relief Act, 1879 to protect peasants against the money lenders

Peasant unrest

Area: Punjab

Year: 1901

Against the acquisition of the land by the money lenders

Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1902 enacted prohibiting transfer of the land from the peasants to the money lenders & mortgages for more 20 years.

Eka movement

Area: Harrdoi, Bahraich, Barabanki, Sitapur (U.P.)

Year: 1921-22

Leader: Madari pasi

Enhanced rent Oppression of the contractors

Police managed to crush the movt

Mappila, Rebellion

Area: Malabar, Kerala

Year: 1922

Cultivators of Malabar revolted against the moneylenders & Zamindars against the lack of security of tenure, exorbitant rent and renewal fees.

It later assumed Communal colour Crushed by the Govt. in 1921.

Bardoli Satyagraha

Area: Bardoli - Gujarat

Year: 1927

Leader: Vallabhbhai patel

Enhancement of the land revenue by 22% even though cutton prices had declined

Govt. tried to suppress the govt. Maxwell Broomfield enquiry Committee set up Govt. which admitted Bardoli assessment was Faulty and enhancement was Cut down.

All India Kisan Congress

Area: Lucknow

Year: 1936

Leader: Presided over by Swami Shajanand

Against moneylenders, Zamindars, traders & Govt.

A Kisan manifesto was adopted in Bombay session in 1937

Tebhaga movement

Area: Bengal

Year: 1946

Leader: Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha

By the sharecroppers against the Jotedar’s demand of ½  share of crop instead of 1/3  share

In 1950 congress passed Bargadar’s Bill

Bakasht Land Struggle

Area: Bihar

Year: 1938-47

Leader: Karyanand Sharma; Yadunandan Sharma, Jauna Karjee, Rahul Sanskritayana

Bakasht lands were those lands which tenants had lost to zamindars during depression years by virtue of non- payment of rent which they continued to cultivate as sharecroppers

The movement continued till the zamindari was abolished.

 

Tribal Movements of 19th and 20th Century

Name of the Tribe

Course and consequence of revolt

Chuars

Area: Nanbhum and Barabhum (West Bengal)

Year: 1766-68

Leader: Not available

Defiance of British authority by Chuars; suppression of the Revolt by British through use of force as well as conciliatory measures

Bhils

Area: Khandesh

Year: 1818-48

Beginning of revolt of Bhils with British occupation of Khandesh (1818) and their defiance of British  for  30 years; final suppression through military operations combined with conciliatory measures.

Bhils

Area: Shinghbum and Chhota Nagpur

Year: 1820, 1822 & 1832

Occupation of Singhbhum by British and revolt of the Hos (1820); its suppression after extensive military operations; they revolt again in 1832.    

Kolis

Area: Sahyadri Hills (Gujrat and Maharashtra)

Year: 1824,1828,1839 & 1844-48

Repeated revolts of Kalis and their final suppression after the capture of all their

leaders.               

Khasis

Area: Khasi Hills (Assam & Meghalaya)

Year: 1829-32

Leader: Tirut Singh and Bar Manik (Chiefs of Nounklow & Molim respectively)

Unsuccessful attempts of the Khasis to drive. away the British from their territory; surrender of all Khasi chiefs, including Tirut Singh, to the British in 1832.

Singphos

Area: Assam

Year: 1830-39

Suppression of 1830 revolt by Captain Neufville; murder of Colonel-White (British

Political Agent of Assam) by Singphos in 1839 but their ultimate defeat by British

Kols

Area: Chhota Nagpur

Year: 1831-32

Leader: Buddho Bhagat

Suppression of the revolt after extensive military operations of British and death of

Bhagat

Koyas

Area: Rampa Region (Chodavarm in Andhra Pradesh)

Year: 1840, 1845, 1858, 1861-62, 1879-80, 1922-24

Leader: Alluri Sitaramaraju (1922-24)

Repeated revolts of the Koyas, the major ones being the 1879-80 and 1922-24 revolts; capture and execution of Raju by British in May 1924.

Khonds

Area: Khondmals (Orrisa)

Year: 1846-48, 1855 and 1914

Leader: Chakra Bisayi

The first two revolts, led by Bisayi,were put down with great difficulty by the British.

Santhals

Area: Rajmahal Hills (Bihar)

Year: 1855-56

Leader: Sidhu & Kanhu

Revolt of Santhals and establishment of their own government (July, 1855); defeat of British under Major Burrogh by Santhals; transfer of the disiurbed area to the military and final suppression of the revolt by the end of 1856; creation of a separate district of Santhal Paraganas to prevent Santhals from revolting again in future.

Naikdas

Area: Panch Mahals (Gujarat)

Year: 1858-59 & 1868

Leader: Rupsingh and Joria Bhagat

Revolt of Naikdas under Rupsingh in 1858 and conclusion of peace between British

 Rupsingh in 1859; their revolt again in 1868, and establishment of a kingdom with Joria as the spiritual head of Rupsingh as temporal head; suppression of the revolt after the capture and execution of Rupsingh and Joria.

Kacha Nagas

Area: Cacher (Assam)

Year: 1882

Leader: Sambhudhan

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Mundas

Area: Chhota Nagpur

Year: 1899-1990

Leader: Birsa Munda

Foundation of new religious sect, with Singh Bonga as the only true god, but Birsa (1895); - British fears over Birsa's preachings among Mundas, and arrest and imprisonment of Birsa (1895-97); release of Birsa and revival of his doctrine (1898); revolt of Mundas and their attack of churches and police stations (1899); defeat of Mundas by British (Jan, 1900) and capture of Birsa (he died of cholera in jail in

June 1900).

Bhils

Area: Banswara and Dungapur (southern Rajasthan)

Year: 1913

Leader: Govind Guru

It began as a purification movement, but later developed into a political movement; failure of their attempts to set up a Bhil Raj due to British armed intervention.

Oraons

Area: Chhota Nagpur

Year: 1914-15

Leader: Jatra Bhagat

Launching of a monotheistic movement by Jatra in 1914 andits transformation into a  radical political movement to drive away the British in 1915; its suppression by British through repressive measures.

Tana Bhagat Movement

Area: Chotanagpur, Jharkhand

Year: 1918

Adivasis threatened nonpayment of the Chowikidari tax and rent during Non

Cooperation movt.

Thadoe Kukis

Area: Manipur

Year: 1917-19

Leader: Jadonang and his neice Rani Gaidinliu

Their rebellion and guerrilla war against British for two years.          

Chenchus

Area: Nallamala Hills (Andhra Pradesh)

Year: 1921-22

Leader: Hanumanthu

Their revolt against increasing British control over forests.               

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