Nagasaki Day 2019: Causes, History and Facts
On 9 August every year, Nagasaki Day is observed because on this day US dropped atomic bomb on the Nagasaki city of Japan in 1945 during World War II. The first bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima and the second was dropped on Nagasaki on 9 August which killed around 74,000 people or more. After six days of Nagasaki bombing, the Japanese Emperor Gyokuon-hoso speech was broadcast to the nation, addressing about the surrender. The devastation caused due to the bombing led Japan surrender in World War II.
Reason behind dropping atomic bomb on Japan two cities
According to the sources reason behind dropping the atomic bomb on Japan two cities and according to the US President Truman is military. Dropping the bomb would end war quickly and effectively with the least amount of casualties on the U.S side. He also wants to justify the expenses of the Manhattan Project where bomb was created. Bombing impressed Soviet Union and created a response to Pearl Harbour. No doubt bombing forced Japan to surrender.
About Atomic Bomb
The bomb was uranium bomb. When it was dropped on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, it had an explosive yield equal to 15,000 tonnes of TNT. While a slightly larger plutonium bomb exploded over Nagasaki just two days later on 9 August levelled 6.7 km square of the city and killed around 74,000 people by the end of 1945. The temperature of ground reached 4,000 degree Celsius and radioactive rain poured down.
Most of the physicians and nurses in Nagasaki were killed or injured, several hospitals were rendered non-functional, various people suffered from combined injuries and severe burns. Most of the victims died without any care to ease their suffering. In fact some of those who had entered after the bombings in the city also died due to radiation.
If we see long term effects of the bombing then:
Five to six years after the bombing the incidence of leukaemia increased among the survivors and after a decade the survivors began suffering from several other diseases like thyroid, breast, lung and other cancers at higher than normal rates. Also, for solid cancers the risk related to the radiation exposure continue to increase even today also after so many decades. Pregnant women when exposed to bombing experienced higher rates of miscarriage and death of their infants. And the children who were exposed to the radiation in their mother's womb experienced intellectual disabilities and impaired growth and also increased rate of developing cancer.
Fat Man bomb
Bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki was known as “Fat Man”. On 9 August Major Charles Sweeney flew another B-29 bomber, Bockscar from Rinian. The primary target was thick clouds at the city of Kokura that drove Sweeney to a secondary target, Nagasaki, where the plutonium bomb "Fat Man" was dropped at 11:02 morning. This bomb was more powerful than used at Hiroshima. The weight of the bomb was nearly 10,000 pounds and was built to produce a 22-kiloton blast. Nagasaki topography played a crucial role as there are valleys between mountains which had reduced the effect of bombing and limited destruction to 2.6 square miles.
On 15 August, 1945, the Japanese Emperor announced the surrender and ‘Victory in Japan’ or ‘V-J Day’ celebrations broke out across the United States and other Allied nations.
So, we come to know that on 9 August, 1945 US dropped nuclear bomb on Nagasaki, Japan which further led to the surrender of Japanese Emperor in World War II.