Pandyan Kingdom was located in Tamil Nadu, South India.
It started around 6th century BC and ended around the 15th century AD.
Pandyan kingdom extended during the Sangam age comprised the present districts of Madurai, Tirunelveli, Ramnad in Tamil Nadu. Madurai was the capital city and Korkai the chief Port of the kingdom, which became the great centres of trade and commerce. The Sangam literature provides a long list of Pandyan kings out of which some of them became most popular. Madhukudumi Peruvazhthi performed many sacrifices to celebrate his victories. Therefore, he was given a title Palyagasalai. Another Pandyan king Bootha Pandiyan was a great warrior and also the patron of Tamil poets. Ariyappadaikadantha Nedunjeliyan was also a famous Pandyan ruler. He gave death sentence to the hero of Silappathigaram (epic), Kovalan, by mistake for which he gave his own life when he came to know the truth.
Another important ruler was Thalaiyalanganathu Nedunjeliyan who was believed to have ruled around 210 A.D, defeated the combined forces of Chera, Chola and five other minor states at a place called Thalaiyalanganam, which is mentioned in a 10th century inscription. He also patronized a number of Tamil poets including Mangudi Maruthanar. The Pandyan kingdom was having trade with Roman Empire which profited traders and made kingdom wealthy and prosperous. Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan ruled Pandyan Empire from 1251-61 A.D was known as ‘Second Rama’ for plundering the islands of Sri Lanka.
The Pandyan rule started declining from the early 14th century when dispute arose between the claimants for succession of throne and one of claimant ask for a help from Delhi sultan, Alauddin Khilji, which resulted in an invasion by sultan under the leadership of Malik Kafur. The Muslim invasion led to the disappearance of the Pandyans.