Parliamentary System in India
The democratic system of government can be divided into the parliamentary and the presidential system based on the relationship between the executive and the legislature. In a parliamentary system, executive is a part of legislature, which implements the law and plays an active role in framing it as well.
In a parliamentary system, the head of the state may be a monarch or a president, but both of these positions are ceremonial. The head of the government, who is generally called as the Prime Minister, is the real head. Thus, all the real executive powers are vested in the Prime Minister.
The parliamentary government is also called as the Cabinet government due to concentration of executive powers in the cabinet. Articles 74 and 75 deals with the parliamentary system at the centre and Article 163 and article 164 deals with the Parliamentary system at the states.
Elements and Features of Parliamentary System
Mentioned below are the elements and features of the parliamentary system:
In India, the head of government is the Prime Minister who is the real executive. Article 75 of the Indian constitution provides for a Prime Minister to be appointed by the president. According to Article 74, the Prime Minister headed council of ministers would aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions.
Advantages of Parliamentary System
The parliamentary system has the following advantages over the presidential system:
1. Represents Diverse Group: The parliamentary form of government provides opportunity to various ethnically, racially, linguistically and ideologically diverse groups to share their views in framing of laws and policymaking. Countries, such as India, which have high level of diversity enables accommodation by providing political space to various diverse sections of the society.
2. Better Co-Ordination Between Legislature and Executive: The executive is a part of the legislature. As the government enjoys the support of majority of members in the lower house, the tendency of disputes and conflicts decreases. It makes easy for the government to pass the legislation in the parliament and implement them.
3. Prevents Authoritarianism: In a parliamentary system, the tendency of authoritarianism decreases as the power is vested in the council of minister rather than a single individual. The parliament can remove the government through no-confidence motion.
4. Responsible Government: The parliament can check the activities of the executive as the latter is responsible to the former. In a presidential system, the president is not responsible to the legislature. The members of the parliament can ask question, move resolutions, and discuss matters of public importance to pressurize the government. Such provisions are not available in Presidential system.
5. Availability of Alternate Government: The lower house of the parliament can introduce and pass a no-confidence motion. In such a situation, the head of the state invites the leader of the opposition party to form the government. In the United Kingdom, the opposition forms a shadow cabinet for the cabinet of the government, so that they can become ready for the role.