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What is Agro-Climatic Zone?

Mar 5, 2019 14:48 IST
    Agro-Climatic Zone

    Green Revolution provided the much needed food security to the vast population of the Indian Nation but in spite of being one of the top producers of almost all agricultural commodities, the productivity is still very low compared to many other countries in the world. The Agro-Climatic Zone is one of the tools to maximize the production from the available resources and prevailing climatic conditions, need-based, location specific technology needs to be generated. 

    What is Agro-Climatic Zone?

    Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined an agro-climatic zone (ACZ) as a land unit represented accurately or precisely in terms of major climate and growing period, which is climatically suitable for certain range of crops and cultivars. In other words, it is an extension of the climate classification keeping in view the suitability to agriculture.

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    Agro-Climatic Zone/ regions in India

    The Planning Commission of India has divided the India into fifteen broad agro-climatic zones on the basis of physiography, soils, geological formation, Climate, cropping patterns, and development of irrigation and mineral resources for extensive agricultural planning and developing future strategies. The main objective was to integrate plans of the agro-climatic regions with the state and national plans to enable policy development based on techno-agro-climatic considerations. The agro-climatic zones in India are given below:

    1. Western Himalayan Region

    Area: Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the hill region of Uttarakhand

    Major Crops: Saffron, maize, barley, oats and wheat; peaches, apricot, pears, cherry, almond, litchis, walnut

    2. Eastern Himalayan Region

    Area: Arunachal Pradesh, the hills of Assam, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and the Darjeeling district of West Bengal

    Major Crops: Rice, maize, potato, and tea; orchards of pineapple, litchi, oranges and lime

    3. Lower Gangetic Plain Region

    Area: West Bengal (except the hilly areas), eastern Bihar and the Brahmaputra valley

    Major Crops: Rice, jute, maize, potato, and pulses

    4. Middle Gangetic Plain Region

    Area: Parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

    Major Crops: Rice, maize, millets, wheat, gram, barley, peas, mustard and potato

    5. Upper Gangetic Plains Region

    Area: Central and western parts of Uttar Pradesh and the Hardwar and Udham Nagar districts of Uttarakhand

    Major Crops: wheat, rice, sugarcane, millets, maize, gram, barley, oilseeds, pulses and cotton

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    6. Trans-Ganga Plains Region

    Area: Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi and the Ganganagar district of Rajasthan

    Major Crops: wheat, sugarcane, cotton, rice, gram, maize, millets, pulses and oilseeds

    7. Eastern Plateau and Hills

    Area: Chhotanagpur Plateau, extending over Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Dandakaranya

    Major Crops: rice, millets, maize, oilseeds, ragi, gram, potato, tur, groundnut, soyabean, urad, castor, and groundnut

    8. Central Plateau and Hills

    Area: Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand, Bhander Plateau, Malwa Plateau, and Vindhyachal Hills

    Major Crops: millets, wheat, gram, oilseeds, cotton and sunflower

    9. Western Plateau and Hills

    Area: Southern part of Malwa plateau and Deccan plateau (Maharashtra)

    Major Crops: Wheat, gram, millets, cotton, pulses, groundnut, oilseeds, sugarcane, rice, wheat, oranges, grapes and bananas

    10. Southern Plateau and Hills

    Area: Interior Deccan and includes parts of southern Maharashtra, the greater parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu uplands from Adilabad District in the north to Madurai District in the south

    Major Crops: millets, oilseeds, pulses, coffee, tea, cardamom and spices

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    11. Eastern Coastal Plains and Hills

    Area: Coromandal and northern Circar coasts of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

    Major Crops: Rice, jute, tobacco, sugarcane, maize, millets, groundnut and oilseeds

    12. Western Coastal Plains and Ghats

    Area: Malabar and Konkan coastal plains and the Sahyadris

    Major Crops: Rice, coconut, oilseeds, sugarcane, millets, pulses and cotton

    13. Gujarat Plains and Hills

    Area: Hills and plains of Kathiawar, and the fertile valleys of Mahi and Sabarmati rivers

    Major Crops: Groundnut, cotton, rice, millets, oilseeds, wheat and tobacco

    14. Western Dry Region

    Area: West of Aravalli (Rajasthan)

    Major Crops:  Bajra, jowar, moth, wheat and gram

    15.  Island Region

    Area: Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep

    Major Crops:  rice, maize, millets, pulses, arecanut, turmeric and cassava


    Agro-Climatic Zone

    The agro - climatic zone division will help to achieve the optimum utilization in a suitable manner within the framework of resource constraints and potentials of each region. This classification will also help in the development of efficient farming systems and crop improvement research programmes, and establishing principles for improved resource management.

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