A hurricane is a violent storm originating over tropical or subtropical waters, characterized by violent rainstorms and high-velocity cyclonic winds. Here, we are giving the concept, definition and formation of hurricanes for general awareness.
It is a whirling tropical storm that is constituted by a low-pressure centre, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms which produce heavy rain. It is thermal origin that can acquire a whirling motion because of the Coriolis force. This type of cyclone sustained winds of 74 miles per hour or higher. It is classified as a hurricane in the Pacific Ocean (East & West), typhoon in the China Sea, or the cyclone in the Indian Ocean and willy-Willies north-west Australia. It originates in the Atlantic basin, which includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, the eastern North Pacific Ocean, and, less frequently, the central North Pacific Ocean.
It is formed when the tropical disturbance or group of thunderstorms over warm tropical waters, then low level winds flow into the disturbance and they evaporate water from the ocean surface. This process transfers energy from the ocean into the atmosphere. When the winds arrive at the disturbance, they rise up and release that energy into the air as they form clouds and precipitation. This warms the air and makes it buoyant, almost like a hot air balloon, and encourages more warm/moist air to flow in from the outside.
As the air moves toward the centre of the disturbance, it “curves” or “spirals”, rather than flowing in a straight line. This spiral effect comes from the rotation of the Earth – as air moves over large distances, the Earth moves underneath it, producing a spiral effect and causes the whirling effect of a tropical storm which is regionally called as a Hurricane.