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Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions: Climate, Climate Change, and Agriculture

Feb 19, 2018 19:00 IST
    A: Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions: Climate, Climate Change, and Agriculture
    A: Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions: Climate, Climate Change, and Agriculture

    Economic Survey 2017-18 questions based on the topic Climate, Climate Change, and Agriculture provided here will help IAS aspirants to get the insight of topic in a question format. The IAS aspirants should practice such questions based on the topics of Economic Survey 2017-18 because such can be asked in the IAS Prelims Exam 2018.

    IAS Prelims Exam Guide

    1. Which of the following economists has argued that economic development is always and everywhere about getting people out of agriculture and agriculture becoming over time a less important part of the economy (not in absolute terms but as a share of GDP and employment)?
    a. Roy F. Harrod
    b. Arthur Lewis
    c. Evsey Domar
    d. J. M. Keynes

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The Nobel Prize winner, Sir Arthur Lewis (among others), argued that economic development is always and everywhere about getting people out of agriculture and of agriculture becoming over time a less important part of the economy (not in absolute terms but as a share of GDP and employment). The reason why agriculture cannot be the dominant, permanent source of livelihood is its productivity level, and hence the living standards it sustains can never approach and have historically never approached—those in manufacturing and services. That, of course, means that industrialization and urbanization must provide those higher productivity alternatives to agriculture. But this must happen along with, and in the context of, rapid productivity growth in agriculture, to produce greater food supplies for the people, provide rising farm incomes, and permit the accumulation of human capital.

    Economic Survey 2017-18 Analysis: Climate, Climate Change, and Agriculture Part 1

    2. Who among the following Indian scholars had warned about the dangers of romanticizing rural India and famously derided the village as “a sink of localism, a den of ignorance, narrow-mindedness and communalism,”?
    a. Amartya Sen
    b. Lala Lajpat Rai
    c. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar
    d. Mahalanobis

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Dr. Ambedkar warned about the dangers of romanticizing rural India.
    He famously derided the village as “a sink of localism, a den of ignorance, narrow-mindedness and communalism,” thereby expressing a deeper truth—an Indian social complement to the Lewisian economic insight—that in the long run people need to move and be moved out of agriculture for non-economic reasons. This was quoted by B.R. Ambedkar when he was strongly disagreed with Gandhi’s celebration of village life and morals.

    Economic Survey 2017-18 Analysis: Climate, Climate Change, and Agriculture Part 2

    3. Consider the following statements regarding the IPCC's (Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change) Climate change models which predict that temperatures in India are likely to rise in the coming years:
    1. Climate change models, such as the ones developed by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), predict that temperatures in India are likely to rise by 3-4 degree Celsius by the end of the 21st century.
    2. IPCC's predictions combined with our regression estimates imply that in the absence of any adaptation by farmers and any changes in policy (such as irrigation), farm incomes will be lower by around 12 percent on an average in the coming years.
    3. Unirrigated areas will be the most severely affected, with potential losses amounting to 18 percent of annual revenue.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Climate change models, such as the ones developed by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), predict that temperatures in India are likely to rise by 3-4 degree Celsius by the end of the 21st century. IPCC's predictions combined with our regression estimates imply that in the absence of any adaptation by farmers and any changes in policy (such as irrigation), farm incomes will be lower by around 12 percent on an average in the coming years.

    Unirrigated areas will be the most severely affected, with potential losses amounting to 18 percent of annual revenue. Climate change models do not have unambiguous predictions on precipitation patterns But if the observed decline in precipitation over the last three decades (of over 86 millimetres) is applied to the estimates, it is found that in unirrigated areas, farm incomes will decline by 12 percent for kharif crops, and 5.4 percent for rabi crops.

    Models of climate change also predict an increase in the variability of rainfall in the long-run, with a simultaneous increase in both the number of dry-days as well as days of very high rainfall. If the observed increase in the number of dry days over the past 4 decades is applied to the short-run estimates, this channel alone would imply a decrease in farm incomes by 1.2 percent.

    Inclusive Development Index 2018: Performance Analysis of BRICS Economies

    4. The Economic Survey 2017-18 have suggested which of the following main channel(s) through which climate change would impact farm incomes?
    1. an increase in average temperatures
    2. a decline in average rainfall
    3. an increase in the number of dry-days
    Codes:
    a. 1 and 2
    b. 2 and 3
    c. 1 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    Answer: d
    Explanation:
    The Economic Survey 2017-18 in its analysis have suggested at least three main channels through which climate change would impact farm incomes – an increase in average temperatures, a decline in average rainfall and an increase in the number of dry-days. Of course, all three are likely to be correlated, and therefore the total impact of climate change will not be the simple sum of these individual effects.

    Economic Survey 2017-18: Analysis and Questions

    5. Consider the following statements regarding the impact of temperature and rainfall on Indian agriculture sector:
    1. One of the key findings is that the impact of temperature and rainfall is felt only in the extreme; that is, when temperatures are much higher, rainfall significantly lower, and the number of “dry days” greater, than normal.
    2. The second key finding is that these impacts are significantly more adverse in unirrigated areas (and hence rainfed crops such as pulses) compared to irrigated areas (and hence crops such as cereals).

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Based on newly compiled weather data and a methodology that has not been applied to Indian data so far, this chapter estimated the impact of temperature and precipitation on agriculture. The main findings are as follows:

    • A key finding—and one with significant implications as climate change looms—is that the impact of temperature and rainfall is felt only in the extreme; that is, when temperatures are much higher, rainfall significantly lower, and the number of “dry days” greater, than normal.

    • A second key finding is that these impacts are significantly more adverse in unirrigated areas (and hence rainfed crops such as pulses) compared to irrigated areas (and hence crops such as cereals).

    • Applying IPCC-predicted temperatures and projecting India’s recent trends in precipitation, and assuming no policy responses, give rise to estimates for farm income losses of 15 percent to 18 percent on average, rising to 20 percent-25 percent for unirrigated areas. At current levels of farm income, that translates into more than Rs. 3,600 per year for the median farm household.

    IAS Exam 2018 | Exam Pattern| Preparation | Syllabus | Study Material : All You Need to Know

    DISCLAIMER: JPL and its affiliates shall have no liability for any views, thoughts and comments expressed on this article.

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