It is very important for aspirants of banking industry to be strong in English to crack various competitive examinations. In order to help you in that regard, the banking team of your favorite test preparation website Jagranjosh has come up with a unique idea. From now onwards, we shall help you enrich your vocabulary by presenting an article from any leading English newspaper and the difficult words from that article with details such as synonyms, antonyms, meaning, usage etc. Candidates are advised to go through the article and the words given below. Here is an article from ‘The Hindu’ (Dated 28th September 2016).
‘Politics cannot be studied as a mere set of facts as if they are little nuggets to be polished and examined on their own. Politics needs frameworks which provide ways for interpretation and understanding. One senses the need for this when one watches the sudden explosion of upper caste agitations. Ethnography of these demonstrations alone is not enough. One has to see them as statements of values, of the manner in which democracy is seen and assessed. One can see three visions of democracy contesting and overlapping with each other.
The early socialist vision saw democracy as a place where rights to quality were worked out, where the marginal and minority groups used the democratic process to be empowered as citizens. Such a vision is captured in the careers of B.R. Ambedkar and Ram Manohar Lohia. The second kind of vision inaugurated after the Bharatiya Janata Party came to power was a majoritarian vision, where electoralism was a consolidation of numbers. The transition from democracy as a value to a fact of demography becomes obvious here. There is a third kind of contest emerging where democracy, like the market, becomes a competitive game, where right loses to might and democracy becomes a fragile Hobbesian word.
Here the battle is not for justice to the downtrodden but a search for consolidation and privilege. Quotas and reservation no longer embody a search for justice, but an interest group politics where the powerful seek to accumulate more power. There is a mirror inversion of concepts like justice, victimhood, fairness as these same concepts are used by higher castes in a new “Alice in Wonderland” way, where they insist words mean what they say.
There is a politics of anxiety played out by the upper class who sees democracy not as a framework of universal values but as a basis for consolidating a parochial world. The contrast is stark between a Dalit or tribal battling for rights and the demands of upper castes such as Patels, Jats and Marathas. The logic of the scripts and the nature of political dramas are radically different. First, the Dalits’ protests for rights have the character of an appeal. They are seeking to go beyond deprivation. The upper caste protests convey a sense of threat, of aggression and violence. For Dalits, democracy is a value; for upper castes it appears relevant as long as it sustains them instrumentally in power. If democracy does not work, it can be discarded like an old piece of tissue or a rag.’
1. Agitations (Noun): A state of nervous excitement or anxiety
Synonyms: Perturbation, Disturbances
Antonyms: Calmness, Relaxation
Example: The agitations carried out by the new political party have caused many problems for the citizens of the city.
2. Empowered (verb): Making someone stronger and more confident, especially in controlling their lives or claiming their rights.
Synonyms: Emancipated, Unfettered
Antonyms: Enslaved, Disenfranchised
Example: Women should be empowered in order to address the issues of gender imbalance in the society.
3. Consolidation (Noun): Combining a number of things into a single thing to make it more effective and cohesive.
Synonym: Unification, combination
Antonym: Division, diversification
Example: All the production activities of the company are going through consolidation exercise in order to cut down the compounding losses suffered by the company.
4. Transition (Noun): The period or process of changing from one state or condition to another
Synonyms: Transformation, Adaptation
Antonyms: Stagnation, Idleness
Example: Indian cricket team is going through a phase of transition since all the senior players are retiring and youngsters are yet to make a mark in the team.
5. Fragile (Adjective): Easily destroyed or threatened or something that is easily breakable
Synonyms: Brittle, Dainty
Antonyms: Firm, durable
Example: You have a fragile grip on reality and it is very obvious from your views on politics as expressed in the meeting.
6. Embody (verb): Be an expression of or give a visible or tangible form to an idea, quality or feeling
Synonyms: Represent, Epitomize
Antonyms: Conceal, Exclude
Example: A national team that embodies patriotic zeal and skill can win laurels both on and off the field in any sports.
7. Inversion (Noun): A reversal of the normal course of action in any case
Synonyms: Transposition, Reversal
Antonyms: Accord, Consistency
Example: The inversion of the normal arrangement has made it an issue between the two countries regarding sharing of water from the rivers.
8. Parochial (Adjective): Having a limited or narrow outlook or scope regarding something
Synonyms: Restricted, prejudiced
Antonyms: liberal, broad-minded
Example: The parochial attitude of the seniors in the village has resulted in high rate of illiteracy among girls in the village.
9. Stark (adjective): severe or bare in appearance or outline, complete or sheer
Synonyms: Absolute, confounded
Antonyms: Indefinite, covered
Example: He came running back to his mother in stark terror.
10. Radically (adverb): Affecting or changing the fundamental nature of something, far-reaching or thorough.
Synonyms: Entirely, wholly
Antonyms: Superficially, deficiently
Example: The new principal of the school radically changed the very nature of how things used to be in the school and made it famous in the region.