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Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation - Global Warming

Oct 13, 2016 09:18 IST

    In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, the subject Environment and Ecology considered as the one of the most important sections among all the subjects of UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The UPSC IAS aspirants required to prepare this subject very well because of growing importance of this subject at global level. So, here we have created Multiple Choice Questions of Environment and Ecology based on the topic Global Warming for UPSC IAS Preparation.

    1.    Consider the following statements regarding Global Warming situation on earth:
    I.    The temperature surrounding the earth has been rising during the recent past, is due to the ‘green house effect’.
    II.    A green house is a glass chamber in which plants are grown to provide them warmth by trapping sun light.
    III.    The phenomenon of heat build up inside a glass chamber from the absorption of solar radiation is called green house effect.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    The temperature surrounding the earth has been rising during the recent past, is due to the ‘green house effect’. A green house is a glass chamber in which plants are grown to provide them warmth by trapping sun light. Sunlight (a form of energy) passes through the glass and it gets absorbed inside releasing heat radiations unlike sunlight, heat radiation cannot escape through glass the heat generated there from, cannot escape out of the glass chamber.
    Thus, even on a cold winter day, the inside of a green house can become quite warm to support plant growth. The phenomenon of heat build up inside a glass chamber from the absorption of solar radiation is called green house effect.

    IAS Prelims Exam: Environment and Ecology Questions: Conservation of Soil and Land

    2.    Which of the following is on the list of Global Environmental issues?
    a.    green house effect and global warming
    b.    biodiversity loss
    c.    desertification
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    The developmental discrepancies in different regions of the world pose a serious threat to our common global environment. Consequently, we are confronted with complex environmental issues deserving attention. The important global environmental issues are:

    •    green house effect and global warming

    •    biodiversity loss

    •    desertification

    •    depletion of ozone layer

    •    acid rain

    •    oil spills

    •    dumping of hazardous wastes

    3.    Consider the following statements regarding the suggested measures to minimize global warming by reducing emission of green house gases especially carbon dioxides:
    I.    Increased fuel efficiency of power plants and vehicles
    II.    Development/implementation of solar energy/non-fossil fuel alternatives
    III.    Halting deforestation

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    Every individual must take immediate steps to minimize global warming by reducing emission of green house gases especially carbon dioxides. Following steps would be useful in reducing emission/release of green house gases into the atmosphere:

    •    Increased fuel efficiency of power plants and vehicles

    •    Development/implementation of solar energy/non-fossil fuel alternatives

    •    Halting deforestation

    •    Supporting and undertaking tree-planting (afforestation)

    •    Reduce air-pollution

    4.    Consider the following statements regarding the reasons for biodiversity loss:

    I.    Introduction of foreign species
    II.    Environmental degradation
    III.    Loss of habitat

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    Rapid decline of biodiversity is a result of various causes and few of the followings are:

    Loss of Habitat: Due to the growing human population, wetlands are being made dry through landfills, as the demand for land increases. Natural forests are cleared for industry, agriculture, dams, habitation, recreational sports, etc.

    As a consequence- every plant and animal species occupying that ecosystem is temporarily or permanently affected. So are the migrating birds or other animals visiting that habitat and occupying the ecosystem.

    Introduction of foreign species: With growing volume of international travel accidental introduction of species into a new or foreign area has become easier. There are many species which have invaded new areas to which they were introduced unintentionally. Many of the new species introduced into new regions thrive at the expense of native species. For example: Parthenium, Argemone and Lantana are the common weeds of foreign origin in our country.

    Environmental degradation: A vast array of factors causing environmental degradation may result in the loss of biodiversity. Some of these factors are: global warming, increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, nuclear radiation; UV-exposure; oil spills, etc.

    5.    Consider the following statements

    1.    Burning of fossil fuel, wood and crop residues all produce lot of Oxides of nitrogen
    2.    Sulphur dioxide is major pollutant released from oil refineries.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:
     

    Burning of fossil fuel, wood and crop residues all produce lot of carbon dioxide leading to global warming and climate change. Sulphur dioxide is produced by burning fossil fuels and it is a major pollutant released from oil refineries.

    6.    Which of the following is/are not Green House Gases?
    1. Nitrous oxide
    2. Ozone
    3. Sulphur dioxide

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 3
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation:


    Atmospheric gases like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, and Chlorofluorocarbons are capable of trapping the out-going infrared radiation from the earth.

    7.    At the global scale relative contributions of CO2, CH4, N2Oand CFCs towards global warming  are:
    a.    50 %, 30 %, 10 % , and  10 % respectively
    b.    76%, 16%, 6%,  and 2% respectively
    c.    40 %, 30%, 20% and 10% respectively
    d.    None of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:


    At the global scale, the key greenhouse gases emitted by human activities are:

    Source: IPCC (2014) based on global emissions from 2010.

    Carbon dioxide (CO2): Primary source of CO2 emission is the use of fossil fuel. The way in which people use land is also an important source of CO2, especially when it involves deforestation. CO2 can also be emitted from direct human-induced impacts on forestry and other land use, such as through deforestation, land clearing for agriculture, and degradation of soils. Likewise, land can also remove CO2 from the atmosphere through reforestation, improvement of soils, and other activities.

    Methane (CH4): Agricultural activities, waste management, energy use, and biomass burning all contribute to CH4 emissions.

    Nitrous oxide (N2O): Agricultural activities, such as fertilizer use, are the primary source of N2O emissions. Biomass burning also generates N2O.

    Fluorinated gases (F-gases): Industrial processes, refrigeration, and the use of a variety of consumer products contribute to emissions of F-gases, which include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
    Black carbon is a solid particle or aerosol, not a gas, but it also contributes to warming of the atmosphere. Learn more about black carbon and climate change on our Causes of Climate Change page.

    8.    Which of the following economic activities out of the economic sector largely contributes to greenhouse gases at global level?
    a.    Industry
    b.    Agriculture, forestry and other land use
    c.    Electricity and Heat Production
    d.    Transportation

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Electricity and Heat Production (25% of 2010 GHG emissions): The burning household coal, natural gas, and oil for electricity and heat, is the largest single source of global GHG emissions:

    Source: IPCC (2014) based on global emissions from 2010.

    Industrial activity (21% of 2010 GHG emissions): GHG gas emissions from industry primarily involve fossil fuels burned on site at facilities for energy. This sector also includes emissions from chemical, metallurgical, and mineral transformation processes not associated with energy consumption and emissions from waste management activities. (Note: Emissions from industrial electricity use are excluded and are instead covered in the Electricity and Heat Production sector.)

    Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (24% of 2010 GHG emissions): Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector come mostly from agriculture (cultivation of crops and livestock) and deforestation. This estimate does not include the CO2 that ecosystems remove from the atmosphere by sequestering carbon in biomass, dead organic matter, and soils, which offset approximately 20% of emissions from this sector.

    Transportation (14% of 2010 GHG emissions): Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation. Almost all (95%) of the world's transportation energy comes from petroleum-based fuels, largely gasoline and diesel.

    Buildings (6% of 2010 GHG emissions): Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector arise from onsite energy generation and burning fuels for heat in buildings or cooking in homes. (Note: Emissions from electricity use in buildings are excluded and are instead covered in the Electricity and Heat Production sector.)

    Other Energy (10% of 2010 GHG emissions): This source of greenhouse gas emissions refers to all emissions from the Energy sector which are not directly associated with electricity or heat production, such as fuel extraction, refining, processing, and transportation.

    9.    With reference to the sources and causes of Greenhouse Gases which of the following is correctly matched?

     

    Gas

    Sources and Causes

    a

    Carbon dioxide (CO­­2)

    Refrigeration,  solvents,  insulation  foams,  aero  propellants, industrial and commercial uses

    b

    Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs)

    Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation

    c

    Methane (CH4)

    Growing paddy, excreta of cattle and other livestock, termites, burning of fossil fuel, wood, landfills etc.

    d

    Nitrogen oxides (N2O)

    Refrigeration,  solvents, ,  aero  propellants,  insulation  foams, industrial and commercial uses


    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Greenhouse Gases and their sources and causes:

    Carbon dioxide (CO2): Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Refrigeration, solvents, insulation foams, aero propellants, industrial and commercial uses.

    Methane (CH4): Growing paddy, excreta of cattle and other livestock, termites, burning of fossil fuel, wood, landfills etc.

    Nitrogen oxides (N2O): Burning of fossil fuels, fertilizers; burning of wood and crop residue.

    10.    With reference to effect of green house gases, which of the following is/are true?
    1. Changes to plant growth and nutrition levels
    2. Ozone depletion
    3. Smog pollution

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    Ocean acidification, smog pollution, ozone depletion as well as changes to plant growth and nutrition levels.

    The two most abundant gases in the atmosphere, nitrogen (comprising 78% of the dry atmosphere) and oxygen (comprising 21%), exert almost no greenhouse effect. Instead, the greenhouse effect comes from molecules that are more complex and much less common. Water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is the second-most important one. Methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and several other gases present in the atmosphere in small amounts also contribute to the greenhouse effect. In the humid equatorial regions, where there is so much water vapour in the air that the greenhouse effect is very large, adding a small additional amount of CO2 or water vapour has only a small direct impact on downward infrared radiation. However, in the cold, dry polar regions, the effect of a small increase in CO2 or water vapour is much greater. The same is true for the cold, dry upper atmosphere where a small increase in water vapour has a greater influence on the greenhouse effect than the same change in water vapour would have near the surface.

    Several components of the climate system, notably the oceans and living things, affect atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. A prime example of this is plants taking CO2 out of the atmosphere and converting it (and water) into carbohydrates via photosynthesis. In the industrial era, human activities have added greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, primarily through the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests.

    Adding more of a greenhouse gas, such as CO2, to the atmosphere intensifies the greenhouse effect, thus warming Earth’s climate. The amount of warming depends on various feedback mechanisms. For example, as the atmosphere warms due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, its concentration of water vapour increases, further intensifying the greenhouse effect. This in turn causes more warming, which causes an additional increase in water vapour, in a self-reinforcing cycle. This water vapour feedback may be strong enough to approximately double the increase in the greenhouse effect due to the added CO2 alone.

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