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The SOCIOLOGY consists of following topics given below:
Sociology - Basic Concepts
An Introduction of Sociology
Society is created by people, and it also provides space to those who create it. In day-to-day life, people think about human society in general and of a society in which they live in particular.
Emergence and Development of sociology
In the previous lesson, you have learnt about the nature and scope of sociology. In this lesson you will study the emergence and development of sociology in the west and its India.
Sociology: Its Relationships with other social Sciences
In the first two lessons you have learnt about the meaning and scope of sociology and its history. In this lesson, you will study the relationship between sociology and other social sciences.
Methods and Techniques of Research in Sociology
Social science is concerned with the explanation of human behaviour. Data of omed1lpayanxtmleinsuchexpluadonnaIKdtohtisendscial scientists have devised methods and techniques for the systematic collection of data.
Society, Community, Association and Institution
Sociology is a science of society which focuses on certain basic units to understand how human beings live and carry out their activities. These units provide the basis for understanding relationships between individual life and social processes.
In the previous lesson, we have learnt about concepts like society, community, association and institutions. It must be clear by now that these terms refer to groupings that help i to make sense of how human beings live.
Social Structure and Social System
In a high school, the students change every year; some students pass out and have entered a new class. A new student gets transferred from another school: someone drops out, being unable to continue study because of financial difficulties, but the school as a social system continues to survive.
Norms and Values
When teach enters in the classroom, the students are expected to show their respect by standing up. Drinking too much alcohol, cheating in a test are not accepted and considered harmful in almost all modern societies.
Status and Role
The task or sociology is to examine and analyze the name of the fundamental order that society exhibits. A part or this task we have now accomplished. We have noticed in our earlier lesson on 'norms and values” that the order and regularity of social interaction are attributed to the existence of norms and values which guide and canalize the relations that people have with one another.
Cooperation, Competition and Conflict
By now, you are familiar with some of the basic concepts used in sociology such as society, community, group, individual and association. In fact, they provide the basic structure to the society. Society is not static. It is ever changing.
Acculturation, Assimilation & Integration
In the previous lesson we have discussed some of the social processes as expressed in social interaction. Imagine a situation when individual members co-operate with each other compete with one another and engage in conflicting behaviour with one another or with Opponents.
Social Institutions and social Stratification
You must be aware that marriage is an important social relationship. It is found everywhere in the world. Through marriage, two persons of opposite sex get social approval to live together as husband and wife.
Family is an important social group for an individual and society. Every individual in this world is a part of one family or the other. All of us are born and brought up in a family.
Man is social by nature. He establishes many types of relationships with a number of persons. The most important of these relationships is known as kinship. You find yourself surrounded by several kins in your family as well as outside it.
Economy, Polity and Religion
Societies differ in terms or the number or institutions. Highly developed and differentiated societies, like those in the contemporary industrial world, have a large number of institutions than the simple societies of tribals and peasants.
Social Stratification: Hierarchy, Differentiation and Inequality
In this lesson, you will study about inequality among human beings. So far, in earlier lessons, you have learnt that division of labour is universally found in human societies.
Social Change, Socialization and Social control
Factors of Social change
You are already familiar with the concept or social change and the theories associated with it. Change takes place in all human societies and at all times. Sometimes, it is sudden as when a revolution occurs to replace the old order.
Processes of Social Change
Human society has always been experiencing change. You must also be experiencing such change not only in your own life but also in the family around you.
Every society has its own codes of conduct, rules and regulations, and norms and values. You must have understood by now that every culture clearly demarcates the desirable and undesirable behaviour in different social contexts.
We remember from our childhood days how our parents urged us to eat with our right hand, to respect our elders and our teachers, to be punctual and to help the needy.
We all live in society. Without society we cannot live because we are dependent on ii from our birth to death. Every society has its norms and values. For living in a society, we obey certain norms and values.
Society and Our Environment
Environment can be described as the natural world of land, water air, plants and animals that exist around us. It forms the basis of our existence and development.
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Indian Social Thinkers
In this lesson, you will learn about the contributions that Indian social thinkers have made to the understanding of Indian society. You will also learn about their religious and intellectual contributions to the culture of India.
Unity and Diversity
In this lesson you will learn about the basic characteristics of Indian society. For this, you should know about the concepts like cultural and national unity, diversity, pIun1i and integration etc. India is a vast country, having a geographical area of 3287263 sq. km. and a population or little more than one billion people.
National Integration: concept and Challenge
Wien you fill up a form for admission or apply for a job, there is a word nationality or nation. In front of that column don't we write ‘Indian’. That means we know that India is our nation and our nationality is Indian.
India Society: Tribal, Rural and Urban
Indian society h been broadly divided into tribal, rural and urban societies on the basis of their geographical surroundings and socio-cultural Characteristics. Tribals live in relative isolation marked with distinct culture, language and religion.
Caste System in India
After understanding the basic features or Indian society and its various aspects like tribal, rural and urban, in this lesson you will go through an important aspect of Indian social institutions, i.e. caste system.
Major Religious communities in India
India is a land of several religious communities. As hordes or people came to India in search of fertile lands, better resources and opportunities, and to escape from cruel regimes, they also brought with them their cultures, a component or which is religion.
Major Social Problems of India
Every society continues to change with time. The process of shredding the old and accepting the new dispensation creates problems of adjustment. Our country is also confronted with some major social problems.
Problems of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
Do you know what a social problem is? You might have heard this term because it is frequently used by sociologists. Our society is divided into a number of sections based on caste, age and sex.
Problems of other Deprived Section
In the previous lesson, we have learnt about the problems of two such sections of our society which have been listed by the President of India as Scheduled Castes and scheduled Tribes.
Optional Module-1 Status of Women
Historical and Cultural Perspective
For a sociological understanding of women's status it is important to keep in mind social institutions such as class, caste, family manage and kinship in rural and urban India.
In Lesson number 10 yon learnt about the status of women in India during different periods. Though the Constitution has removed the obstacles to liberation of women, gender discrimination still exists in different social institutions.
Problem of Women
Quest for Equality and Women's Empowerment
You must have heard the word women‘s empowerment being mentioned everywhere during the year 2001. You must have also seen in the newspapers and on television reports of many programmes organised in connection with the women's empowerment year.
Optional Module-2 Culture
Culture: Concept and Characteristics
We all use the term culture quite freely no mean different things at different times. At times, we mean by culture the life style of the people of upper stratum. At times, we refer some people as un-cultured meaning 'rude’ or ‘uncouth’.
Indian Cultural Heritage
In the first lesson, we have discussed the meaning of culture, the concept and different characteristics of culture. This lesson will tell us about the cultural heritage of our country.
We have earlier discussed the meaning, concept and characteristics of culture. We are also acquainted with the ancient, medieval and modern aspects of Indian culture.
Media and Culture
It is not always possible to visit relatives and friends living in far-off places. We want to send messages to them and also receive messages from them. The various means of communication like letters, telegrams and telephones help us to send written or spoken messages to people living in distant places.