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IAS Exam : Prelims Geography Goh Cheng Leong Questions:Earth and the Universe

Dec 29, 2015 18:40 IST

    1.    Consider the following statements

    1.    A ray of light from the sun takes about 8 seconds to reach earth
    2.    Light from moon takes only a second to reach earth

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 2
    c.    Both 1 and 2
    d.    Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:  A ray of light from sun takes 8 minutes to reach earth. Light from moon takes only a second to reach earth.

    2.    Which of the following infer the shape of earth is spherical?

    1.    Circumnavigation of earth
    2.    Shadow cast by earth on moon
    3.    Driving poles on earth do not give perfect spherical level

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation:  Shape of earth is understood by following evidences circumnavigation of earth, circular horizon, ship visibility, sunrise and sunset, lunar eclipse, planetary bodies are spherical, Driving poles on earth do not give perfect horizontal level.

    3.    With reference to earth movement consider the following statements

    1.    Earth rotation on its axis from west to east causes seasons and the year.
    2.    Earth revolution round the sun causes day and night.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 2
    c.    Both 1 and 2
    d.    Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer:d

    Explanation:  The earth moves in space in two distinct ways. It rotates on its own axis from west to east once in every 24 hours, causing day and night. It also revolves round the sun in an orbit once in every 365 ¼ days causing seasons and year.

    4.    Consider the following statements

    1.    As earth rotates from west to east, places in the east see the sun earlier than those in the west.
    2.    The revolution of the earth alone causes the variation in the length of the day and night at different times of the year.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 2
    c.    Both 1 and 2
    d.    Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: a

    Explanation:  The revolution of the earth and its inclination at an angle of 66 ½  degree to the plane of elliptic  causes the variation in the length of the day and night at different times of the year.

    5.    With reference to the altitude of the midday sun.

    1.    The sun is vertically overhead at the equator on the two days each year which is termed summer solstice.
    2.    When southern hemisphere will have longest day and shortest night, it is termed winter solstice.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 2
    c.    Both 1 and 2
    d.    Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:  The sun is vertically overhead at the equator on the two days each year which is termed equinoxes meaning equal nights, because on these two days all parts of the world have equal days and nights. When sun is vertically overhead in tropic of cancer, northern hemisphere will have longest day and shortest night called summer solstice. When sun is vertically overhead in tropic of Capricorn, southern hemisphere will have longest day and shortest night called winter solstice.

    6.    Assertion: the linear distance of a degree of latitude at the pole is a little longer than that at the equator.
    Reason: the is slightly flattened at the poles

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    A and R is correct. R is correct explanation of A
    b.    A and R is correct. But R is not correct explanation of A
    c.    A is false, R is true
    d.    A is true, R is false

    Answer: a

    Explanation:  At the equator the linear distance of a degree of latitude is 68.704 miles. At 45 degree it is 69.054 miles and at poles it is 69.407 miles. At the same time the meridians of longitude, which converge at the poles enclose a narrower space. Therefore degree of longitude decreases in length. It is longest at the equator.

    7.    With reference to constituents of earth crust, which of the following is true?

    1.    The continents are formed by basaltic rocks comprising ‘sima’.
    2.    The ocean floors are formed by granitic rocks comprising ‘sial’.
    3.    sial is lighter than sima .

    select the correct answer using following codes

    a.    only2
    b.    only 1 and 2
    c.    only 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation:  The continents are formed by granitic rocks comprising ‘sial’. The ocean floors are formed by basaltic rocks comprising ‘sima’. Since sial is lighter than sima, continents are said to floating on sea of denser sima.

    8.    Consider the properties of Igneous rocks

    1.    They are crystalline in structure
    2.    They occur in strata
    3.    They do not contain fossils.

    Select the correct answer using following codes

    a.    1 and 2 only
    b.    1 and 3 only
    c.    2 and 3 only
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation:  Igneous rocks are formed by cooling and solidification of molten rock from beneath the earth’s crust. They do not occur in strata nor do they contain fossils. They are crystalline in structure. Most igneous rocks are extremely hard and resistant. Thus they are quarried for road making and polished as monuments.

    9.    Consider the following statements

    1.    Acid igneous rocks are less dense and lighter in colour.
    2.    Basic igneous rocks are denser and darker in colour.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 2
    c.    Both 1 and 2
    d.    Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer : c

    Explanation:  When rocks contain a high proportion of silica they are said to be acid. Acid igneous rocks are less dense and are lighter in colour than basic rocks. Basic rocks contain a greater proportion of basic oxides ex: iron, aluminium or magnesium and are thus denser and darker in colour.

    10.    Identify the rock with following properties

    1.    Rocks precipitated chemically from solutions of one kind or another.
    2.    It is also formed organically and accumulation of materials derived from other rocks.

    Select the correct answer from following codes

    a.    Metamorphic rocks
    b.    Sedimentary rocks
    c.    Organically formed sedimentary rocks
    d.    Metamorphic rocks

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Sedimentary rocks are of three types: organically formed sedimentary rocks- formed from the remains of living organisms, mechanically formed-formed from the accumulation of materials derived from various rocks, chemically formed- Rocks precipitated chemically from solutions of one kind or another.

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