For the benefit of NDA & NA (II) 2017 Exam aspirants, Jagran Josh is providing general science practice questions. The questions were prepared by taking into account the questions asked previously in NDA exams. The answers along with detailed explanations will help the aspirants in rectifying their mistakes in solving the question paper and help in scoring good marks in the final exam.
1. Malarial parasite is a
2. It is difficult to kill viruses because they
(a) consist of tough protein coat
(b) are very small in size
(c) lack cellular structure
(d) spend a lot of time inside the host’s cells
3. A person is unable to read a newspaper without his glasses. He is most probably suffering from
4. The genetic material of bacteria is found in
(c) cell membrane
5. A horse and a donkey can breed to produce mule which is an infertile animal. The infertility is because horse and donkey belong to different
6. A plant having yellow leaves with dead spots has the deficiency of
7. Fluoride toothpaste is sometimes recommended because fluoride
(a) prevents plaque formation
(b) hardens the enamel of the tooth
(c) kills pathogenic bacteria
(d) prevents tooth ache
8. Which one among the following statements is correct?
(a) Prokaryotic cells possess nucleus.
(b) Cell membrane is present both in plant and animal cells.
(c) Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not found in eukaryotic cells.
(d) Ribosomes are present in eukaryotic cells only.
9. Which one among the following statements is not true for Mammals?
(a) They possess hair on the body.
(b) Some of them lay eggs.
(c) Their heart is three chambered.
(d) Some are aquatic.
10. In human digestive system, the process of digestion starts in
(b) Buccal cavity
11. The most effective wavelength of visible light in photosynthesis is in the region
d) Both b and c
12. Pashmina is a breed of
13. The thermoregulatory organ of the body is
a) Pituitary gland
14. Whose milk contains the most fat?
15. The malarial fever starts
a) Just after the mosquito bite
b) After the parasites reach the liver
c) After the bursting of RBCs
d) After the toxin is released by blood
16. Shifting cultivators normally grow
a) A single crop which is mainly consumed
b) The major crop along with cereals
c) Cash crop along with fodder
d) Grains, vegetables and tubers in rotation
17. What is mixed farming?
a) The growing of two crops simultaneously
b) The combination of farming and industry
c) Farming coupled with animal husbandry
d) Collective farming
18. The three communicable diseases prevalent in developing countries caused by unsafe drinking water and bad sanitation are
a) acute diarrhoea, cancer and gout
b) malaria, acute diarrhoea and plague
c) onchocerciasis, leukemia and arthritis
d) rheumatism, malaria and AIDS
19. Xerophthalmia is caused due to the deficiency of
c) Vitamin A
20. Which of the following has been described as the most powerful food on the earth?
a) blue-green algae
21. Dropsy is a disease caused due to adulteration in
b) Arhar Dal
c) Mustard Oil
d) Turmeric Powder
22. What is ‘breakbone fever’ most commonly known as?
c) Yellow fever
23. Which one among the following is not a sexually transmitted disease?
d) Hepatitis B
24. After diagnosis of disease in a person, the doctor advises the patient iron and folic acid tablets. The person is suffering from
d) Protein-energy malnutrition
25. Consider the following statements related to the Zika virus.
1) Zika virus is a vector borne disease transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
2) As the Aedes mosquito can fly more than 40 kms, the chances of spread of the disease from region to region is high.
3) The virus causes Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is a condition in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the nervous system.
Which of the above statements is/are true?
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1,2 and 3
26. Which of the following diseases is caused by bacteria?
c) Chicken pox
27. The Union Government recently launched the Test and Treat policy for providing treatment to patients suffering from which disease?
b) Human Immunodeficiency Virus
28. What was the theme of the World Health Day 2017 observed globally on 7 April 2017?
a) Safe Blood starts with me
b) Vector-borne diseases: small bite, big threat
c) Food Safety
d) Depression, Let's Talk
29. The World Kidney Day was observed on 9 March 2017 with the theme
a) Kidney Health for All
b) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and aging
c) Kidney Disease and Obesity
d) Kidneys for Life – Stop Kidney Attack!
30. India declared itself free from which disease recently?
a) Zika Virus
b) Avian Influenza
d) Swine Flu
Answers with Explanations
1. (b) protozoa
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals. The disease is caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the Plasmodium type. Protozoa is a group of single-celled microorganisms. Some of the other diseases caused by protozoa are - Amoebic dysentery, Sleeping sickness and Kala azar.
2. (d) spend a lot of time inside the host’s cells
When a virus enters our body it tries to attack a cell. If our immune system recognises the virus as an intruder, it will be destroyed before the virus can gain entry to a cell. If not, the process of infection begins. Once inside the cell, the virus can hijack the cell's own replication machinery, which starts to make many copies of the virus. These viruses burst out of the cell, destroying it, and will attempt to infect many more cells unless tackled by the immune system.
3. (b) presbyopia
Presbyopia is a condition associated with aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects. Symptoms include a hard time reading small print, having to hold reading material farther away, headaches, and eyestrain. Different people will have different degrees of problems. Other types of refractive errors may exist at the same time as presbyopia.
4. (b) cytoplasm
Bacteria are prokaryotes . Hence they do not have a well defined nucleus. Their genetic material , which consists of circular and double-stranded DNA , floats freely in the cytoplasm and is not membrane-bound. The region in the cytoplasm , where the genetic material floats is known as nucleoid.
5. (c) species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction.
6. (b) Magnesium
Without sufficient amounts of magnesium, plants begin to degrade the chlorophyll in the old leaves. This causes the main symptom of magnesium deficiency, chlorosis, or yellowing between leaf veins, which stay green, giving the leaves a marbled appearance. Older leaves turn yellow at edge, interveinal chlorosis causes green arrowhead shapes or marbling in the centre of the leaf (speckling in cereals).
7. (b) hardens the enamel of the tooth
The loss of enamel is balanced by remineralization. When fluoride is present during remineralization, the minerals deposited into the tooth enamel help strengthen your teeth and prevent dissolution during the next demineralization phase. Thus, fluoride helps stop the decay process and prevent tooth decay.
8. (b) Cell membrane is present both in plant and animal cells.
While eukaryotic cells have a "true" nucleus containing their DNA, whereas prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. In eukaryotic cells Mitochondria and chloroplasts are found. Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes contain large RNA/protein structures called ribosomes, which produce protein.
9. (c) Their heart is three chambered
Mammalian and avian hearts have four chambers, two atria and two ventricles. This is the most efficient system, as deoxygenated and oxygenated bloods are not mixed. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through both the inferior and superior vena cava.
10. (b) Buccal cavity
The process of digestion begins in Buccal cavity. It is also called as mouth or oral cavity. In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food.
11. (d) Both b and c
Green light is reflected by the leaves, thus making it the least effective. The most effective lights are blue and red light as there are two activity peaks at these wavelengths. Otherwise, this activity occurs at many different wavelengths, with the only difference that its efficiency differs from wavelength to wavelength.
12. (a) Sheep
Pashmina shawls are made of the fibre derived from these sheep.
13. (b) Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus serves as a natural thermostat of the body and regulates its temperature. We perspire or shiver, depending on whether our body would like to gain or lose heat. It is a crucial part of the internal stable environment maintained by hypothalamus to permit optimum bodily functions- called homeostasis. The pituitary is called the Master Gland.
14. (b) Camel
Reindeer is domesticated by the Eskimos in very cold, icy environments. The percentage of fat in a particular variety of mil determines its thickness. Fats, milk solids and other nutrients are present in milk to varying extents.
15. (d) After the toxin is released by blood
Malaria is accused by Plasmodium, a protozoan. It is carried by the female Anopheles mosquito in unhygienic conditions. The parasites multiply after entering the body and it is when the toxins reach the blood that the fever begins.
16. (a) A single crop which is mainly consumed
Shifting cultivation, called jhumming in north-east India, involves cultivating a field for some time and then burning the residue to move to another place for cultivation. It is an utterly wasteful exercise, which pollutes the environment, too.
17. (c) Farming coupled with animal husbandry
The two activities of agriculture and animal husbandry was are integrated to ensure that there is no wastage of time or materials, For instance, the farm waste can be a part of the animal feed while their refuse can be suitably used as manure or to produce biogas, a clean form of energy.
18. (b) malaria, acute diarrhoea and plague
Other options contain at least non-communicable disease. Malaria is spared by mosquitoes as they carry Plasmodium, the causal microbe. Diarrhea is caused by bacteria.
19. (c) Vitamin A
Vitamin A has a significant role in preventing night blindness, in which the patient is unable to see in conditions of dim light or darkness. Xerophthalmia causes dry eyes, due to a problem with the eye glands. A deficiency of Calcium can cause bone problems.
20. (b) sunova
Called Sunova spirulina. It contains immense amounts of protein and that’s why it has been named so by the WHO. One gram of sunova contains proteins equal to those found in one tone of vegetables. It is used during space flights by astronauts.
21. (c) Mustard Oil
Dropsy, also referred to as edema is a condition which is characterized by swelling of the body tissue due to accumulation of fluids. While this condition may frequently be observed in the lower extremities namely the ankles, feet and legs, it any affect any other organ. While it is more frequently associated with certain conditions, the treatment regimen for management of dropsy may differ depending upon the underlying cause.
22. (d) Dengue
Dengue is also sometimes called breakbone fever. The disease isn't actually breaking any bones, but it can feel like it is because of the joint and muscle pain. Symptoms of dengue fever usually appear 4 to 14 days after someone has been infected.
23. (c) Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C. Early symptoms include weakness, feeling tired, and sore arms and legs. Without treatment, decreased red blood cells, gum disease, changes to hair, and bleeding from the skin may occur. As scurvy worsens, there can be poor wound healing, personality changes, and finally death from infection or bleeding.
24. (b) Anaemia
Anemia, also spelled anaemia, is usually defined as a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood. It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
The three main types of anemia are due to blood loss, decreased red blood cell production, and increased red blood cell breakdown. Causes of blood loss include trauma and gastrointestinal bleeding, among others. Causes of decreased production include iron deficiency, a lack of vitamin B12, thalassemia, and a number of neoplasms of the bone marrow.
25. (c) 1 and 3 only
Zika virus occurs in tropical areas with large mosquito populations and is known to circulate in Africa, the Americas, Southern Asia and Western Pacific. The virus was discovered in 1947, but for many years only sporadic human cases were detected in Africa and Southern Asia.
In 2007, the first documented outbreak of Zika virus disease occurred in the Pacific. Since 2013, cases and outbreaks of the disease have been reported from the Western Pacific, the Americas and Africa. In May 2017, WHO confirmed India’s first cases in Ahmedabad.
People catch Zika virus by being bitten by an infected Aedes mosquito – the same type of mosquito that spreads dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The Aedes mosquito is a weak flyer; it cannot fly more than 400 meters. But it may inadvertently be transported by humans from one place to another, for example, in the back of the car and plants.
During the first outbreak of Zika from 2013 - 2014 in French Polynesia, which also coincided with an ongoing outbreak of dengue, national health authorities reported an unusual increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome. It is a condition in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the nervous system. It can be caused by a number of viruses and can affect people of any age.
26. (a) Leprosy
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Initially, infections are without symptoms and typically remain this way for 5 to 20 years. Symptoms that develop include granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed wounds. Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present.
27. (b) Human Immunodeficiency Virus
In April 2017, the Union Health Minister JP Nadda launched the Test and Treat policy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients. Under the new policy, anyone who is tested and found positive will get the necessary treatment free of cost. Anyone found positive will be provided with ART (Anti- Retroviral Therapy) irrespective of his CD count.
28. (d) Depression, Let's Talk
World Health Day (WHD) 2016 was observed globally on 7 April 2016. The theme for the year is Depression, Let's Talk . The theme for the WHD 2016 WAS Halt the Rise: Beat Diabetes.
29. (c) Kidney Disease and Obesity
The World Kidney Day 2017 was observed on 9 March 2017 with the theme Kidney Disease and Obesity: Healthy Lifestyle for Healthy Kidneys. The WKD 2017 sought to promote education about the harmful consequences of obesity and its association with kidney diseases.
30. (b) Avian Infuenza
India on 6 July 2017 declared itself free from Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1 and H5N8) and notified the same to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), an intergovernmental body that coordinates, supports and promotes animal disease control.
India had reported outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian influenza at various epicenters in Delhi, Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), Rajpura (Punjab), Hissar (Haryana), Bellary (Karnataka), Allappuzha and Kottayam (Kerala), Ahmedabad (Gujarat), Daman (Daman) and Khordha and Angul (Odisha).