Vocabulary is an important and integral part of learning English and without good vocabulary you will never be able to master English. Now, vocab is something that makes you mug up a lot of words without understanding the meanings and applications in the sentences. You must have heard it a million times that newspaper should be primary source of your vocabulary. Here is vocabulary Quiz based on an article taken from newspaper.
Article: Pseduonymisation is helping firms comply with a new EU Privacy Law
The European Union is home to 512m people. From May 25th firms wishing to handle data that pertain to any of those people will have to comply with a new set of privacy rules called the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The introduction of the GDPR is the biggest change to privacy legislation in the EU for 20 years. In particular, the new rules are strict about the purposes for which data may be used. If a bank collects names and addresses in order to process payments, or a hospital records laboratory-test results in order to treat patients, those organisations are prohibited from putting the data in question to any other use.
The GDPR does, though, come with an escape hatch—pseudonymisation. This means replacing identifying information such as names, dates of birth and addresses with data that look the same but do not reveal details about a real person. That is useful when the statistical content of a data set is required (say the proportion of women in a particular industry) but not the details of any particular person. A number of firms now offer software that helps the pseudonymisation of large data sets, so that such operations will not fall foul of the GDPR.
Banks are particularly interested. Modern payment systems involve complex, multiple, interlinked data sets, and the development of new software to handle these requires tests on data identical in form to those of the live data on which the software will eventually operate. Using real customer data for such development work would, however, be a breach of the GDPR as they were gathered in order to send and receive payments, not to build more software.
Rabobank, a Dutch firm, has thus spent the past year pseudonymising payment data it has collected using software called the High Assurance Desensitisation Engine, which was developed by IBM’s cryptography laboratory in Zurich. This has transformed its databases so that names, account numbers and dates of birth retain their form but lose the identifying information they contained.
The software does this by assigning a long random number, known as a key, to each data field, such as “name” or “account number” that is to be pseudonymised. It then performs a mathematical operation on every piece of data in each of those fields in the database (all the names, all the account numbers, and so on) that combines each one of them with the relevant field key. A piece of data so pseudonymised is replaced by a string of letters and numbers known as a hash.
That done, Rabobank then uses another piece of IBM software to examine how the structure of the data varies across each field in the original data set, searching for rules that govern the format of names, account numbers and so on. Once the software has learned those rules, it can then transform a hash into a pseudonym that looks like the original data, and more importantly behaves similarly when run through the bank’s own software.
The result is a new set of data that contains no personal information, but retains the format and statistics of the original. The only way that each field in the new data set can be returned to its old state is by applying the key used to generate the hash. In Rabobank’s case, these keys are held by the accounts teams. The development teams working on the pseudonymous data never see them.
Firms other than banks are also adopting this kind of privacy technology. Since late 2016, for instance, Apple has used a technique called differential privacy to gather data about iPhone use while minimising the personal data sucked up in the process. Google has adopted a similar method to collect data from smartphone-keyboard software. Uber uses the approach to let its analysts study driving data without breaching drivers’ privacy.
IBM has also provided its pseudonymisation technology to Truata, a new firm based in Dublin that it set up earlier this year in partnership with MasterCard, a multinational financial-services company. Truata acts as a legal trust through which third parties can pass data for analysis to confirm that they are GDPR-compliant. As a trust, Truata is legally bound to operate according to its constitutional document. This document states that the firm will hold assets (data, in this instance, not monies) in accordance with the principles of the GDPR. That provides customers with an extra level of protection.
Pseudonymisation, then, promises to help companies process data in ways that comply with the GDPR. It may even liberate the more scrupulous to make money from their data sets in new ways, freed from privacy limitations which had previously kept those data locked away.
1. Accordance (noun): In a manner conforming to something.
Synonyms: conformity, congruity, consonance
Antonyms: Refusal, disagreement, discord
Sentence: The local body elections were conducted by the election commission in accordance with the existing rules and regulations in this regard.
2. Liberate (verb): release someone from a situation that is limiting the thought or behavior of the person.
Synonyms: detach, emancipate, discharge
Antonyms: incarcerate, detain, bind, hold
Sentence: Through this divorce from her husband, she is going to get liberated from the constraints of a failed and unhappy marriage.
3. Differential (Adjective): constituting a specific difference or distinction
Synonyms: disparage, divergent, different
Antonyms: Similar, alike, common, ordinary
Sentence: The differential features between normal fever and dengue can only be understood by a specialized doctor.
4. Relevant (Adjective): closely connected to or appropriate to what is being done or considered
Synonyms: pertinent, applicable, apposite
Antonyms: improper, incompatible, insignificant
Sentence: The teacher did not give any relevant advice regarding the upcoming examination but she was talking about something general.
5. Scrupulous (Adjective): Careful, thorough and extremely attentive to details
Synonyms: careful, meticulous, assiduous
Antonyms: carefree, careless, casual
Sentence: The research regarding the new drug for cancer has been carried out with scrupulous detail so that nothing goes wrong at a later stage.
6. Cryptography (noun): the art of writing or solving codes
Synonyms: Coding, cryptanalysis
Antonyms: Bare, clear, transparent
Sentence: Cryptography is mainly in use during war since it is not possible to communicate in the language of one’s own.
7. Breach (noun): An act or breaking or failing to observe a law or a code of conduct.
Synonyms: contravention, violation, infringement
Antonyms: upholding, agreement, observance, obedience
Sentence: The insurance company repudiated the claim because of the breach of policy terms and conditions by the policyholder.
8. Legislation (noun): Laws or the process of making laws
Synonyms: Act, Statute, constitution, regulation
Antonyms: anarchy, lawlessness
Sentence: The new legislation concerning human trafficking could not be presented in the house because of boycott by the opposition members.
9. Hatch (noun): A small opening in a wall floor or a roof allowing access from one area to another
Synonyms: Gap, flaw, mistake
Antonyms: water-tight, strict, stringent
Sentence: The new act of the government regarding health regulation has a hatch that can defeat the whole purpose of the whole legislation.
10. Bound (adjective): Placed within certain limits and restrictions in functioning and operation
Synonyms: restricted, limited, confined, restrained
Antonyms: free, permitted, unrestricted
Sentence: Though the inmates are allowed to apply for and go out on parole, they are bound by certain rules and regulations during their time outside the jail.
Direction (1-5): Answer the following questions as directed.
1. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the phrase ‘sucked up’ as used in the passage?
- None of the above
Solution: Option 2
Explanation: The given word means that the company has a system in which personal data is not collected in abundance. That makes option 2 the right choice as the synonyms of the given word, among all the given options.
2. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘reveal’ as used in the passage?
Solution: Option 4
Explanation: The given word refers to confess something or express something. Among the given options, ‘conceal’ refers to hiding something whereas ‘attest’ refers to certifying something by putting your seal on it. ‘Certify’ refers to endorse something that you believe whereas ‘extol’ means to sing the praises for someone or something. Only ‘concede’ means to confess something and that is why, it is the right choice as the synonym among the given options.
3. Which among the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘foul’ as used in the passage?
- None of the above
Solution: Option 1
Explanation: The given word has been used in the passage in the sense that something is not going against the law. Among the given options, ‘obedient’ means somebody who abides by rules and laws, ‘impugned’ means disputed, ‘excruciating’ means severe and extreme whereas ‘contaminating’ means making something dirty. That makes option 1 the right choice as the antonym among the options.
4. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘pertain’ as used in the passage?
Solution: Option 5
Explanation: The given word means related to or associated to something. Among the given words, ‘acknowledge’ means to recognize or authorize something, ‘averting’ means avoiding something, ‘access’ refers to the reach, ‘excess’ refers to something more than required whereas ‘related’ refers to associated to something. This makes option 5 the right choice as the synonym among the given options.
5. Which among the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘prohibited’ as used in the passage?
Solution: Option 5
Explanation: The given word refers to limiting somebody from doing something or restricting something to happen. Among the given options, ‘retaliated’ refers to taking revenge on somebody, ‘avenged’ refers to taking revenge also whereas ‘accorded’ means to provide something and ‘rectified’ refers to corrected. ‘Allowed’ refers to giving permission to something and that is why, it is the right option among the given choices.
Word of the Day
Adscititious (adjective): Forming an additional or supplement part that is not integral.
Synonyms: Additional, extra, adventitious, incidental
Antonyms: necessary, integral
Sentence: The supplemental report of the surveyor given to the insurance company was adscititious and was not part of the original survey report.