UPSC IAS Prelims 2021: Important Questions on Modern History - Topic 6 (Gandhian Thoughts and Ideology)

Check below 10 important questions on the Gandhian Thoughts and Ideology topic of the Modern History syllabus for UPSC IAS Prelims exam 2021.

UPSC IAS Prelims Important Questions on Modern History Gandhian Thoughts and Ideology
UPSC IAS Prelims Important Questions on Modern History Gandhian Thoughts and Ideology

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi or Mahatma Gandhi was a renowned freedom activist and an authoritative or powerful political leader who had played an important role in India's struggle for Independence against the British rule of India.  His ideology of truth and non-violence influenced many and was also adopted by Martin Luther and Nelson Mandela for their struggle movement. The topic is important from the Prelims perspective and aspirants should study each part in detail. Once through the preparation, you can solve mock tests and quizzes to test your preparation. Below we have provided 10 important questions from the Revolt of 1857 topic of Modern History. Questions are accompanied by the correct answer and an attached explanation. Aspirants can solve these topic-wise important questions to test their preparation level.

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Ques 1: What is the correct chronological order of movements led by Gandhi?

(a). Kheda Peasant Satyagraha, Khilafat, and non-Co-operation Movement, Individual Civil Disobedience started

(b). Non-Co-operation Movement, Champaran Satyagraha, Kheda Peasant Satyagraha

(c).  Khilafat Movement, Kheda Peasant Satyagraha, Champaran Satyagraha 

(d). Champaran Satyagraha, Khilafat Movement, Kheda Kheda Peasant Satyagraha

Ans: a


 Champaran Satyagraha (1917), Kheda Peasant Satyagraha (1918), Khilafat and non-Co-operation Movement (1920-21), Individual Civil Disobedience (1933).

Ques 2: Who had given the slogan of 'Do or Die’ during All India Congress Committee in Bombay and ratified the 'Quit India' resolution?

(a). Mahatma Gandhi

(b). Jawaharlal Nehru

(c). Subhash Chandra Bose

(d). Jayaprakash Narayan

Ans: a


The slogan “do or die” associated with Mahatma Gandhi. This slogan came into existence during the Quit India Movement initiated by Gandhiji. The slogan was officially launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) led by Mahatma Gandhi on 9 August 1942.

Ques 3: In which place in Bihar, Gandhiji established the first basic school?

(a). Bhitiharwa

(b). Barharwa Lakhansen village

(c). Madhuban

(d). None of the above

Ans: b


Gandhi established the first-ever basic school at Barharwa Lakhansen village, 30 km east from the district headquarters at Dhaka, East Champaran, on November 13, 1917 to improve the economic and educational conditions of the people. Hence, A is the correct option.

Ques 4: Consider the following statements:

  1. Gandhi established the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) to improve the rights of Indians against Britishers in India
  2. ‘The Story of My Experiments with Truth’ is a biography of Gandhi written by his personal secretary Mahadev Desai.

Which of the given statement/s are incorrect?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: c


On 22 May 1894, Gandhi established the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and worked hard to improve the rights of Indians in South Africa.

The Story of My Experiments with Truth is an autobiography of Gandhi ji. This book covers life of Gandhi ji from early childhood through to 1921. It was published in his journal Navjivan from 1925 to 1929.

Ques 5: Consider the following statements:

  1. The book “Unto This Last” greatly captivated and transformed Gandhiji. So much so that he translated it into Gujarati. 
  2. Gandhi’s weekly paper ‘Harijan’ was started in the year 1933 from Ahmedabad

Which of the given statement/s is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: a


The book “Unto This Last” greatly captivated and transformed Gandhiji. So much so that he translated it into Gujarati. The book was authored by John Ruskin.

In February 1933 Gandhiji started the publication of a weekly paper, Harijan, to promote the anti-untouchability campaign. Its first issue was out on February 11, 1933, from Poona.

Ques 6: To put the ideas of ‘Unto This Last’ into practice, Gandhiji founded the Phoenix Settlement near Durban which came into being in the middle of the year:

  1. a) 1903

(b) 1904

(c) 1905

(d) 1906

Ans: b


The specific birthplace of Gandhi’s non-violent ideas was the Phoenix settlement. The Phoenix settlement was originally established by Gandhi in 1904 to provide a location for him to found the Natal Indian Congress (NIC), teach others basic survival skills such as cloth weaving and farming, print his newspaper called The Indian Opinion, and lead others in prayer and studies of social justice, peace, and harmony.

Ques 7: Gandhiji accorded a very high priority to communal harmony in his programme of actions. At which place did he undertake his last fast for it on January 13, 1948?

(a) Nasik

(b) Delhi

(c) Calcutta

(d) Bombay

Ans: b


It is not a matter of law but a cultural and moral sensibility. These were the concerns behind Gandhi's last fast, undertaken in bleak circumstances in the city of Delhi in 1948.

Ques 8: Identify the Viceroy who wrote home these words after his first meeting with Gandhiji:” Mr. Gandhi’s religious and moral views are, I believe, admirable, but I confess that I find it difficult to understand the practice of them in politics.”

(a) Lord Wavell

(b) Lord Irwin

(c) Lord Reading

(d) Lord Mountbatten

Ans: c


Soon after his arrival in India in April 1921, Lord Reading, the new Viceroy, met Gandhi. In a private letter to his son, the Viceroy confessed to a feeling of excitement, almost a thrill, in meeting his unusual visitor and described his religious and moral views as admirable, though he found it difficult to understand his practice of them in politics.

Ques 9: In the course of resistance against which of the following in South Africa did Gandhiji first use his new political weapon which came to be known later on as ‘Satyagraha’?

(a) Peace Preservation Ordinance

(b) Natal Indenture Law

(c) Asiatic Law Amendment Act

(d) Immigrants Regulation Act

Ans: c


The Asiatic Registration Act of 1906, of the Transvaal Colony, was an extension of the passed laws specifically aimed at Asians (Indians and Chinese). Under the act every male Asian had to register himself and produce on-demand a thumb-printed certificate of identity. Gandhi organized his first campaign of satyagraha or mass civil disobedience. After seven years of protest, he negotiated a compromise agreement with the South African government.

Ques 10: What title did Gandhiji give to his Gujrati translation of “Unto This Last”?

(a) Harijan

(b) Jan Kalyan

(c) Sandesh

(d) Sarvodaya

Ans: d


Sarvodaya is a Sanskrit term meaning 'universal uplift' or 'progress of all'. The term was used by Mahatma Gandhi as the title of his 1908 translation of John Ruskin's tract on political economy, Unto This Last, and Gandhi came to use the term for the ideal of his own political philosophy.

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