Human resources are often referred to the population. The population density means the number of people per sq. Km is called the pattern of population distribution. The environmental factors such as high altitude, extreme cold, aridity, relief, climate, soil, vegetation types, mineral, energy resources and technological and economic advancements influences the population distribution, this is the only reason that the hills, mountains and deserts have less number of people per sq. km.
Growth of Population
When the natural increase in the population plus any net gain from migration is known as the population growth. The difference between births and deaths in the country is called natural increase. The balance between people leaving from and people moving into a country is known as net migration.
Composition of population
Population of males and females, children, young and old comprises the population of a country. The population is usually divided into three age groups- children (0-14yrs), adults (15-59yrs) and aged (60 and over). This is called age-group of population. The proportion of adult population is the least variable in the three groups. The main difference is found in the population of children and old people.
The proportion of children is quite low in the first world countries like Sweden whereas in countries like Japan, the proportion of old people is high. When it comes to India, the sex ratio, the number of females per thousand males is very low. Only Kerala is an exception with a higher number of females per thousand males and also have good literacy rate. A person who is above 7yrs and can read and write any language with understanding is called a literate. Literacy, the percentage of literate people, is one of the indicators of the quality of population.
Poverty refers to the economic condition of a person, i.e. a person having little money to fulfil his minimum needs. A country’s development is measured in terms of human development, Life expectancy; Literacy, birth rate and death rate are some of the basic indicators of human development.