List of Blood Diseases in Humans

Blood circulates our body and provides essential substances like oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body. It is essential to life and there is no substitute for blood. Therefore, it is important to know about some of the common blood disorders that can affect health. Let us read it below!
Jun 24, 2020 16:37 IST
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List of Blood Diseases in Humans
List of Blood Diseases in Humans

Blood is important to keep us alive. It carries carbon dioxide and other waste materials to the lungs, kidneys, and digestive system so that it can be removed from the body. It also brings oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. As we know that Human blood is comprised of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Red blood cells carry oxygen to the tissues of the body, White blood cells fight with an infection and platelets helps in blood clotting.

Let us tell you that blood disorders can also affect the liquid portion of the blood known as plasma. Let us study some common blood disorders that can affect you or your health. Some common blood disorders include anaemia, bleeding disorders like haemophilia, blood clots, blood cancers including leukemia, lymphoma, etc.

Do you know about Hematology?

The study of blood in health and disease is known as Hematology. It consists of the problems related to red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, blood vessels, bone marrow, lymph nodes, etc. Basically, a hematologist is a medical doctor who has special knowledge to treat patients with several blood conditions.

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List of some common blood diseases in humans or some common blood disorders in humans.

Blood disorders that affect Red Blood Cells are as follows:

1. Anaemia: People suffering from anaemia have a low number of red blood cells. In case of mild anaemia symptoms may not occur but when anaemia is severe then cause fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath with exertion.

2. Aplastic Anaemia: It is a type of anaemia when the bone marrow fails to produce enough all three types of cells namely red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 

3. Iron-deficiency anaemia: For generating red blood cells in the body, iron is an important component. The common cause of iron-deficiency anaemia is the loss of iron intake and loss of blood due to menstruation. Due to ulcers or cancers, it can also be caused by blood loss from the GI tract. Treatment includes iron pills, or rarely, transfusion of blood.

4. Sickle Cell anaemia: It is an inherited blood disorder where blood cells are sickle or 'C' shaped and block the flow of blood. Sickle cell clumps may block the flow of blood to the limbs and organs and can cause pain, serious infection and organ damage. 

5. Anaemia of chronic disease: People suffering from kidney disease or any other chronic disease tend to develop this kind of anaemia. Usually, chronic anaemia doesn't require treatment. In some people, synthetic hormone injection is provided to stimulate the production of blood cells or blood transfusions.

6. Pernicious anaemia: It is a condition that prevents the body from absorbing enough B12 in the diet. This can be caused due to weakened stomach lining or an autoimmune condition. 

7. Thalassemia: It is a genetic form of anaemia that mostly affects people of Mediterranean heritage. Most of the people don't have symptoms and require no treatment. But others may need blood transfusions to relieve anaemia symptoms.

8. Polycythemia Vera: Polycythemia is a blood cancer that is caused due to gene mutation. Those people who are suffering from this disease their bone marrow starts generating too many red blood cells. This makes blood thicken and flow more slowly, which may put at the risk of blood clots that on the other hand can cause heart attacks or strokes. Treatment includes phlebotomy or removing blood from your veins and medication.

Blood disorders that affect White Blood Cells are as follows:

1. Lymphoma: It is a type of blood cancer that develops in the lymph system. In this type of cancer, white blood cells become malignant, multiplies, and spread abnormally. The two major groups of lymphoma are Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Chemotherapy or radiation treatment is provided which extends life and sometimes cures it.

2. Leukaemia: It is also a type of blood cancer in which white blood cells become malignant and multiplies inside the bone marrow. It can be acute that is rapid and severe or can be chronic which is slowly progressing types. Treatment is chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation (bone marrow transplant) and may result in a cure.

3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): It is a condition that affects the white blood cells in the bone marrow. The body started producing too many immature cells known as blasts. As a result, the blasts multiply, crowd out the mature and healthy cells. This disease may progress either slowly or quite fast and sometimes may lead to leukaemia.

4. Multiple Myeloma: It is also a type of blood cancer in which blood cell known as plasma cell becomes malignant. As a result, the cells of plasma start multiplying and release damaging substances that may cause organ damage. Multiple myeloma has no cure but stem cell transplant or chemotherapy helps people to survive for years with the disease.

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Blood disorders that affect Platelets are as follows:

1. Thrombocytopenia: It occurs due to a low number of platelets in the blood. Several conditions cause thrombocytopenia but most do not result in abnormal bleeding.

2. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP): It is a type of condition where a decreased number of platelets causes bleeding and easy bruising. Small red spots on the skin also occur.

3. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: In this condition, a low platelet count is caused due to reaction against heparin, a blood thinner, provided to several hospitalised people to prevent blood loss. 

4. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: It is a condition of rare blood disorder that causes small blood cells to form in blood vessels throughout the body. In this process platelets are used and cause a low platelet count.

5. Primary thrombocythemia: It is a rare disorder that can lead to increased blood clotting. This can cause the risk of stroke or heart attack. This type of disorder occurs when the bone marrow produces too many platelets.

6. Haemophilia: It is also known as a blood clotting disorder. In most serious complications of the disease, a person suffers with excessive and prolonged bleeding. This bleeding can be inside or outside the body. The bleeding can start without any apparent reason. 

7. Von Willebrand disease: It is a hereditary disease and the most common inherited bleeding disorder. It is caused due to deficiency of a protein that helps the blood to clot known as von Willebrand factor (VWF).

8. Acquired platelet function disorders: Some drugs or medical conditions also affect the functioning of platelets. According to the Canadian Hemophilia Association (CHA), there are some common drugs that can affect platelets mainly if taken for long term including aspirin, some antibiotics, heart drugs, blood thinners, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs), antidepressants, anesthetics, etc.

Blood disorders that affect Platelets are as follows:

A large variety of disorders affect the plasma cells, the type of white blood cells in the body that make antibodies. Let us tell you that these cells are important for the body's ability to remove or fight with an infection and disease.  

Plasma Cell Myeloma: It is a condition of rare blood cancer that develops in the plasma cells in the bone marrow. When malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and form tumours known as plasmacytomas mainly in bones like spine, hips, or ribs. The abnormal plasma cells generate abnormal antibodies called monoclonal (M) proteins. In the bone marrow, these proteins build up and crowd out the healthy proteins. As a result, blood thickened and kidney damage. The cause of the disease is unknown.

These are some common blood disorders occur in the human. 

Blood: Composition, Functions, Transfusion and Blood Group

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