The Indian Council Act of 1892 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that empowered legislative councils in British India by increase their size which laid the foundation of Parliamentary system in India. Before this act, the Indian National Congress put forth with some demand during its session of 1885-1889.
The major demands placed were as follows:
1. A simultaneous examination of ICS to be held in England and India.
2. Reforms of the legislative council and adoption of the principle of election in place of nomination.
3. Opposition to the annexation of Upper Burma.
4. Reduction in the Military expenditure.
These demands of INC (Indian National Congress) make way for formulation of this act.
1. It increased the number of additional (non-official) members in the Central and provincial legislative councils, but maintained the official majority in them.
2. It increased the functions of legislative councils and gave them the power of discussing the budget and addressing questions to the executive.
3. It provided for the nomination of some non-official members of the (a) Central Legislative Council by the viceroy on the recommendation of the provincial legislative councils and the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, and (b) that of the Provincial legislative councils by the Governors on the recommendation of the district boards, municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamindars and chambers.
‘The act made a limited and indirect provision for the use of election in filling up some of the nonofficial seats both in the Central and provincial legislative councils. The word “election” was, however, not used in the act. The process was described as nomination made on the recommendation of certain bodies.’ This act laid the foundation of Parliamentary system in India and also was the landmark in the constitutional development of India. It was the first time the election principles was accepted and introduced by the act of 1892. Apart from this; the act fell far short to fulfill National Demands and did not give anything substantial.
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