Non-Metal are those elements which do not exhibit the metallic characteristics. In the periodic table non-metals are kept almost in the right most. In modern periodic table there are 22 non-metals in which there are 11 gases, 1 liquid and 10 solid. Bromine occurs in the state of liquid and hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine etc are found in gaseous forms. But carbon, sulphur, phosphorous, iodine etc solid non-metals.
Physical properties of non-metal
The physical properties of non-metal are given below:
• They do not produce metallic lustre.
• They are bad conductor of electricity.
• They are bad conductor of heat.
• They are electronegative.
• They cannot be drawn into sheets and wires.
• They have low specific gravity.
• They do not reflect light.
• They do not produce metallic sound.
• They are found in all states of matter.
Chemical properties of non-metal
The chemical properties of non-metal are given below:
• Non metallic oxides are acidic in nature.
• They do not dissolve in dilute mineral acids.
• They form stable compound with hydrogen.
• Their chlorides are completely hydrolyzed by water.
• Reaction of non-metals with oxygen: They react with oxygen to form acidic oxides or neutral oxides.
• Reaction of non-metals with water: They do not react with water (steam) to evolve hydrogen gas.
• Reaction of non-metal with acids: They do not react with acids because they are negative charged electron.
• Reaction of non-metal with salt solution: They do not react with salt solution but displaces less reactive non-metal from the salt.
• Reaction of non-metal with chlorine: They are react with chlorine to form covalent chlorides which are non- electrolytes.