The Punjab region, occupies a land of 50,362 kilometers square in North West division of India. It is lodged amid Pakistan on the western side, Jammu and Kashmir situated on the North, Himachal Pradesh on the north eastern part and Haryana as well as Rajasthan on the southern part.
Actually, the landscape of Punjab can be alienated into the higher segment of the sub Shivalik region and the remaining of Punjab is positioned on the Sutlej - Ghaggar stream basin. The Shivalik vicinity at an elevation of 400 to 700 meters over sea level is made up of fluvial accumulations. The low down Shivalik Hills distinguishes the Himalayas from the plains.
Topographical alterations due to the configuration of Himalayas in the environmental precedent gave a basin-like arrangement to Punjab. The plain lands of Punjab recline amid altitudes 300 meters and 180 meters over sea level. The gradient augments from the west to the east.