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Summary on the Computer Science and Information Technology

31-JAN-2017 17:26

    The Computer is a man-made electronic programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic and logical operations. Here, we are giving summary on the Computer Science and Information Technology which has covered all the fundamentals of computers.

    Computer Science and Information Technology

    Summary on Computer Science and Information Technology

    1. The abacus is the first known calculating device. It was invented by the Chinese and is still widely used in the Far East for commercial calculations. Blaise Pascal invented the second mechanical calculator called Pascaline.

    2. Charles Babbage is considered as the father of computer because he invented the difference engine and analytical engine. Alan Turing is regarded as the father of modern computer science.

    3. The first generation computers used vacuum tubes to store information. Magnetic drums were used for memory. Vacuum tubes were invented by Lee De Forest.

    4. Computers Artificial intelligence is being used and Japanese call them 'Knowledge Processors'. John McCarthy is considered as the father of artificial intelligence.

    5. ENIAC electronic Numerical Integrator and computer was the world's first successful electronic computer, which was developed by two scientists namely JP Eckert and JW Mauchy. It was the beginning of first generation computer.

    6. Super computers are the most powerful computers. These computers are large in size and memory compared to all other computers. The first supercomputer of the world was CRAY-1. The first supercomputer of India was PARAM, which was developed by C-DAC.

    7. Hardware is the collection of physical elements that can be seen by the eyes and felt by touching. All input device, output device, memory and processing unit are examples of computer hardware.

    8. MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) is mainly used to read the magnetic ink character written on the cheques, manufactured products etc.

    9. BCR (Bar Code Reader) is used to read vertical lines having different-different width. It is a 13 digit code and India code in BCR is 890.

    10. Plotters are used to print large maps, hard boards, flex, etc. Graphics quality of plotter is better than printer. The best quality printer is Laser printer and the quality of a printer is measured in DPI (Dots per Inch).

    Gk Questions & Answers on Computer Science Set I

    11. Memory stores all the data and programs. It receives, holds and delivers data according to the instruction from the control unit. There are two types of primary and secondary memory.

    12. RAM is a volatile memory. It is the most common type of memory used in computer. But it can hold data only temporarily because it requires a continuous flow of electrical current.

    13. ROM is a non-volatile memory. It is used for storing programme that is not required to change. It is an internal storage area in the computer. It is a silicon chip on motherboard on which instructions are burned at the time of manufacture.

    14. Booting is the process of loading the operating into main memory or RAM of the computer and the checking the computer itself. During the booting process when the computer is doing self check for checking its parts and peripherals is called POST (Power on Self Test).

    15. CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the hardware within a computer system, which carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical and input/output operations of the system.

    16. Software is a general term, which is used to describe the instructions that are given to the computer. Software is generally classified into three specific categories—System software, Application software and Utility software.

    17. System software is computer software or an operating system designed to operate and control the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software.

    18. Operating systems are that system software that provides a friendly interface between the user and the computer. They work as a bridge between user and computer. e.g., MS-DOS, UNIX, WINDOWS etc.

    19. Language processors are also called as translators. It converts the high level language programme into machine language. The only difference between compiler and interpreter is that compiler work on whole program, where as interpreter works line by line.

    20. Windows 8 includes a new Hybrid Boot option that uses advanced hibernation functionality on shutdown to allow faster start up times. Another new feature is the ability to create a portable workspace, an installation of windows 8 on a USB storage device.

    Gk Questions & Answers on Computer Science Set II

    21. Application software is defined subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. Examples of application software are MS Word, MS Excel, etc.

    22. Data representation is a method to represent data in a computer. The data looks different, but in the computer all are in only one form, i.e., 0 and 1, binary or digital form. Every information is stored in a computer as a digital data.

    23. The ASCII code is an American Standard Code for Information Interchange. In ASCII system a character is represented by seven bits.

    24. The Data processing operation consist of mainly five parts-initialisation, preparation, input, processing, output. Data is a general term used to describe raw facts.

    25. Programming languages are the medium used by one to communicate instructions to a computer. The only programming language, a computer can directly execute, is machine language (sometimes called 'Machine code').

    26. Low level language is mainly represented by a machine and assembly languages and they are tending to be unique to a particular type of computer.

    27. High level language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.

    28. A network is a collection of computers interconnected with each other through cables to share their data, information and other common hardware resources. Every computer on the network is called as node or work station.

    29. Local Area Network is a computer network covering a small physical area like, a home, office or small groups of buildings, such as a school or an airport.

    30. Wide Area Network is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network, whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional or national boundaries) a network device called a router connects LANs to WAN.

    Gk Questions & Answers on Computer Science Set III

    31. The virus is bad programs that multiply themselves and attach themselves a normal working program and infect the program leading to malfunction.

    32. The term computer worm was used for the first time in John Brunner's 1975 novel, the Shockwave Rider. The Creeper virus was the first virus detected on ARPANET, the forerunner of the internet in the early 1970s.

    33. Antivirus software are commonly used utility program, which are used to protect the computer's hardware and software from the damage against bad or harmful software or programs called viruses and from their attacks.

    34. Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images with accompanying sound. Paul Nipkow was the first person to discover television's scanning principle.

    35. Internet television is a television service distributed via the internet using IPTU. Internet television allows the users to choose the program or the TV show, they want to watch from an archive of programs or from a channel directory.

    36. Direct-To-Home (DTH) satellite television is becoming a buzzword in the satellite broadcast industry due to the fact that DTH offers immense opportunities to both broadcasters and viewers.

    37. TV tuner card is a kind of television tuner that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards, allowing them to record television programs onto a hard disk much like the Digital Video Recorder (DVR) does.

    38. The Mobile operating system is the operating system that controls a mobile device similar in principle to an operating system such as Linux or windows that controls a desktop computer or Laptop.

    39. To regulate telecommunication services and matters connected to it, TRAI Act 1991 was established. The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in the Tokyo region in May, 2001.

    40. Channel access method in telecommunication and computer networks allow the several terminals connected to the same multi-point transmission medium to transmit signals over it and to share its capacity.

    GK Questions and Answers on Computer Science and Information Technology

    Super computers are the most powerful computers. These computers are large in size and memory compared to all other computers. The first supercomputer of the world was CRAY-1. The first supercomputer of India was PARAM, which was developed by C-DAC.

    7. Hardware is the collection of physical elements that can be seen by the eyes and felt by touching. All input device, output device, memory and processing unit are examples of computer hardware.

    8. MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) is mainly used to read the magnetic ink character written on the cheques, manufactured products etc.

    9. BCR (Bar Code Reader) is used to read vertical lines having different-different width. It is a 13 digit code and India code in BCR is 890.

    10. Plotters are used to print large maps, hard boards, flex, etc. Graphics quality of plotter is better than printer. The best quality printer is Laser printer and the quality of a printer is measured in DPI (Dots per Inch).

    Gk Questions & Answers on Computer Science Set I

    11. Memory stores all the data and programs. It receives, holds and delivers data according to the instruction from the control unit. There are two types of primary and secondary memory.

    12. RAM is a volatile memory. It is the most common type of memory used in computer. But it can hold data only temporarily because it requires a continuous flow of electrical current.

    13. ROM is a non-volatile memory. It is used for storing programme that is not required to change. It is an internal storage area in the computer. It is a silicon chip on motherboard on which instructions are burned at the time of manufacture.

    14. Booting is the process of loading the operating into main memory or RAM of the computer and the checking the computer itself. During the booting process when the computer is doing self check for checking its parts and peripherals is called POST (Power on Self Test).

    15. CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the hardware within a computer system, which carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical and input/output operations of the system.

    16. Software is a general term, which is used to describe the instructions that are given to the computer. Software is generally classified into three specific categories—System software, Application software and Utility software.

    17. System software is computer software or an operating system designed to operate and control the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software.

    18. Operating systems are that system software that provides a friendly interface between the user and the computer. They work as a bridge between user and computer. e.g., MS-DOS, UNIX, WINDOWS etc.

    19. Language processors are also called as translators. It converts the high level language programme into machine language. The only difference between compiler and interpreter is that compiler work on whole program, where as interpreter works line by line.

    20. Windows 8 includes a new Hybrid Boot option that uses advanced hibernation functionality on shutdown to allow faster start up times. Another new feature is the ability to create a portable workspace, an installation of windows 8 on a USB storage device.

    Gk Questions & Answers on Computer Science Set II

    21. Application software is defined subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. Examples of application software are MS Word, MS Excel, etc.

    22. Data representation is a method to represent data in a computer. The data looks different, but in the computer all are in only one form, i.e., 0 and 1, binary or digital form. Every information is stored in a computer as a digital data.

    23. The ASCII code is an American Standard Code for Information Interchange. In ASCII system a character is represented by seven bits.

    24. The Data processing operation consist of mainly five parts-initialisation, preparation, input, processing, output. Data is a general term used to describe raw facts.

    25. Programming languages are the medium used by one to communicate instructions to a computer. The only programming language, a computer can directly execute, is machine language (sometimes called 'Machine code').

    26. Low level language is mainly represented by a machine and assembly languages and they are tending to be unique to a particular type of computer.

    27. High level language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.

    28. A network is a collection of computers interconnected with each other through cables to share their data, information and other common hardware resources. Every computer on the network is called as node or work station.

    29. Local Area Network is a computer network covering a small physical area like, a home, office or small groups of buildings, such as a school or an airport.

    30. Wide Area Network is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network, whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional or national boundaries) a network device called a router connects LANs to WAN.

    Gk Questions & Answers on Computer Science Set III

    31. The virus is bad programs that multiply themselves and attach themselves a normal working program and infect the program leading to malfunction.

    32. The term computer worm was used for the first time in John Brunner's 1975 novel, the Shockwave Rider. The Creeper virus was the first virus detected on ARPANET, the forerunner of the internet in the early 1970s.

    33. Antivirus software are commonly used utility program, which are used to protect the computer's hardware and software from the damage against bad or harmful software or programs called viruses and from their attacks.

    34. Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images with accompanying sound. Paul Nipkow was the first person to discover television's scanning principle.

    35. Internet television is a television service distributed via the internet using IPTU. Internet television allows the users to choose the program or the TV show, they want to watch from an archive of programs or from a channel directory.

    36. Direct-To-Home (DTH) satellite television is becoming a buzzword in the satellite broadcast industry due to the fact that DTH offers immense opportunities to both broadcasters and viewers.

    37. TV tuner card is a kind of television tuner that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards, allowing them to record television programs onto a hard disk much like the Digital Video Recorder (DVR) does.

    38. The Mobile operating system is the operating system that controls a mobile device similar in principle to an operating system such as Linux or windows that controls a desktop computer or Laptop.

    39. To regulate telecommunication services and matters connected to it, TRAI Act 1991 was established. The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in the Tokyo region in May, 2001.

    40. Channel access method in telecommunication and computer networks allow the several terminals connected to the same multi-point transmission medium to transmit signals over it and to share its capacity.

    GK Questions and Answers on Computer Science and Information Technology

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