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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2016 – 2017

May 10, 2016 16:04 IST

    CBSE has released syllabus of Class 12 for the academic session 2016‒2017.

    The key contents of the syllabus issued by CBSE for Class 12th Biology are:

    • Name of the Units and their weightage in Board Exam
    • Details of topics and sub-topics to be covered in each unit
    • Practical: Evaluation Scheme and List of experiments
    • Prescribed books
    • Question Paper Design for CBSE Class 12th Chemistry Board Exam (2016-17)

    The complete syllabus is as follows:

    Name of the Units and their weightage in Board Exam

    Unit No.


    No. of Periods


    Unit VI




    Unit VII

    Genetics and Evolution



    Unit VIII

    Biology and Human Welfare



    Unit IX

    Biotechnology and its Applications



    Unit X

    Ecology and Environment







    Details of topics and sub-topics to be covered in each unit

    Unit VI: Reproduction

    Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

    Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction -  asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction -  binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

    Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

    Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination-types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events-development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

    Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

    Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (Elementary idea).

    Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

    Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

    Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

    Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

    Heredity and Variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from mendelism - incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; mendelian disorder in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

    Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

    Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; genome and human and rice ganeome project; DNA fingerprinting.

    Chapter-7: Evolution

    Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive Radiation; human evolution.

    Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

    Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

    Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcohol abuse.

    Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

    Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.

    Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

    In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

    Unit IX: Biotechnology and Its Applications

    Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

    Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). 

    Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

    Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.

    Unit X: Ecology and Environment

    Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

    Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

    Chapter-14: Ecosystem

    Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

    Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

    Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

    Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

    Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).

    Practicals: Evaluation Scheme and List of Experiments                                 (Total Periods 60)

    Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                         Max. Marks: 30

    Evaluation Scheme


    One Major experiment


    One Minor experiment


    Slide Preparation




    Practical Record + Viva Voice


    Project Record + Viva Voice



    30 Marks

    List of Experiments

    1. Study pollen germination on a slide.

    2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.

    3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.

    4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.

    5. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.

    6. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.

    7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.

    8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.

    9. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.

    B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)

    1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).

    2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.

    3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper mice).

    4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.

    5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).

    6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.

    7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour blindness.

    8. Controlled pollination -  emasculation, tagging and bagging.

    9. Common disease causing organisms Like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Roundworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.

    10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

    11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

    Prescribed books

    1. Biology, Class-XIl, Published by NCERT

    2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)

    Click Here, To get the Complete Syllabus of CBSE Class 12th Chemistry in PDF format

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