Introductory notes and sample questions on Pedagogy of language development for CTET 2016
The CTET examination is to be held on 21st February 2016 as notified by CBSE. Pedagogy of language development is an important part of language papers. The subject of pedagogy of language development is vast, here in the present article; we present the introduction of the subject along with sample questions on the same.
Language, a means to communicate our thoughts and ideas are essential for survival and development of human being. Every language represents its culture in the best possible way. The command of words and groups of words grows with practice and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to be expressed. Language is a mean of clarifying perception of discovering likeness and differences in things observed, of forming general ideas, and of the discovering relationship. With patience and time; every language can be mastered. Some characteristics of language are given below:
1-It is means of communication and medium of instruction
2-Language is symbolic and dynamic
3-Language is structural system and unique
4-It carries civilization and culture and it is a form of social behaviour
5-Language is made up of habits
Learning: Learning a language requires the operation of an innate capacity processed by all human beings. In our schools, many subjects are taught. The subject, English was taught as second language in my school because the particular practice is given to us to learn English. With the help of the mother tong, The English language was learnt. Learning is the way through which the art of using skill and practice is given to learning.
Psychology of learning
1.Behaviourism- This has been established by Russian psychologist Pavlov and B. F. Skinner. Behaviorism is the theory that psychology should invoke only observable and measurable phenomena. The early behaviorism wanted to sweep away what they saw as empty speculation and the endless postulation of undetectable concept. The verbal behaviorism published by Skinner was the most radical attempt ever treating language in a behaviorist framework. A behaviorist method of language teaching should embody at least the following principles.
•Classical conditioning- Habit formation is the basis of this theory. Pavlov says that human or any creature gives response due to stimulating. Stimulus is that things which create excitation in the creature. It means human learn due to stimulus.
•Operant conditioning- This is also based on the habit formation. B.F. skinner says that human or any creature gives response due to reinforcement. He wants to say that humanly learns due to reinforcement.
2.Cognitivism-This theory is based on the developmental readiness of learner. Cognitivism is the doctrine that the mind can be invoked in scientific investigation and even be made the object of study itself. Piaget says when a child is ready to learn then he can be taught. He learns naturally. This idea can be regarded as a starting point of the cognitive idea. The physiologist emphasizes the importance of three things; meaning, Knowing and understanding. According to him, learning is a meaningful process of ‘’relating new event or items to already existing already cognitive concept’’.
Stages of learning-
Principle of language teaching-
The issue of Language learning and teaching is a complex one. There is no one-size-fits-all prescription to guarantee everyone’s success at the same rate. Therefore, in planning a language-training program, some basic questions must first be explored which can be given as follows:
•Who should be admitted?
•What should be the method of selection of the candidates?
•Do we admit all potential candidates or do we select only those who have already met the minimum language proficiency standard?
•What should be the minimum entrance requirement to enter either our company or the language program specifically?
•Among the current student or employee population, who is it that needs English training?
•How do we know or test that?
•Should we plan to do in-house language training or should we contract some other agency to handle the language situation?
•What should be the content of the instruction?
•Should it focus primarily on language instruction?
•Should aviation content be integrated into the instructional design?
•How and when should the instruction take place?
•How long should it last? Who should pay for it?
•What kind of teaching material and equipment is needed?
•Who is qualified to deliver the instruction?
•Is it enough that the instructor is a trained language teacher, or should she also know something about flying and air traffic control, and if so, how much?
•If a flight instructor is selected to do the teaching, how much language pedagogy should she master before entering the classroom?
Role of grammar-Grammar is a study of language by a specialist, made in the order to establish the rules and principles which underline the correct speech and writing, rules and the principles which are followed more or less unconsciously by the native speakers. But some people say that the utility of teaching of grammar is doubtful in learning English. They say that the students who study grammar are very often able to solve grammar exercise but do not write correct speech. The Teaching of grammar had very important place in the past. It was commonly believed that to do help the pupil to learn English language, its grammar must be taught first.
Method of teaching of grammar-
•Deductive method: Deductive approach is derived from the notion that deductive reasoning works from the general to the specific. In this case, rules, principles, concepts, or theories are presented first, and then their applications are treated. In conclusion, when we use deduction, we reason from general to specific principles. In the case of the application of the deductive approach, Michael Swan (cited in Thornbury, 1999, p. 32) outlines some guidelines for when the rule is presented. Among them are:
•the rules should be true;
•the rules should show clearly what limits are on the use of a given form;
•the rules need to be clear;
•the rules ought to be simple;
•the rules needs to make use of concepts already familiar to the learners; and
•the rules ought to be relevant
•Inductive method: An inductive approach comes from inductive reasoning stating that a reasoning progression proceeds from particulars (that is, observations, measurements, or data) to generalities (for example, rules, laws, concepts or theories) (Felder & Henrique, 1995). In short, when we use induction, we observe a number of specific instances and from them infer a general principle or concept. In the case of pedagogical grammar, most experts argue that the inductive approach can also be called rule-discovery learning. It suggests that a teacher teach grammar starting with presenting some examples of sentences. In this sense, learners understand grammatical rules from the examples.
Sample questions for pedagogy of language development-
1-The primary function of language are-
a-Expression of felling, meaning, communication and thinking
b-To control over other people, as language is a social act
c-Both a and b
d-None of the above
2-When language is learnt naturally and without any systematic practice then it is called as-
d- None of above
3-When language is learnt without any practice it is called as-
4-Which one of the theories based on the habit formation that says that human or any creature gives response due to stimulus or human learn due to stimulus?
d-None of above
5-Effective instructors teach students strategies, using minimum responses, recognizing scripts, and using language to talk about language. These strategies help students learn to-
6-Which one of the following methods is based on the theory ‘from example to generalization’?
7-What should be the order for the process of remedial teaching?
1-Collecting and preparing the support materials
3-Choosing the appropriate teaching strategies
4-Organising teaching materials
5-Setting teaching objective
a-5, 2, 4, 3, 1
b-5, 3, 4, 1, 2
c-3, 5, 4, 2, 1
d-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
The above introductory notes on pedagogy of language development may be helpful to students to get introduced to the subject. The sample questions will be beneficial to see the pattern and level of question asked in exam.