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Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions: Agriculture and Food Management

Jan 31, 2018 18:16 IST
    Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions: Agriculture and Food Management
    Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions: Agriculture and Food Management

    Economic Survey 2017-18 based questions have been provided here for the IAS Prelims Exam 2018. The questions are based on the information given in the ‘Agriculture and Food Management’ chapter of the Economic Survey 2017-18.

    IAS Prelims Exam Guide

    1. Which one of the following is the correct sequence in the decreasing order of production (in million tonnes) of the given food grains in India in 2016-17?
    a) Wheat - Rice - Pulses - Oilseeds
    b) Rice - Wheat - Pulses - Oilseeds
    c) Wheat - Rice - Oilseeds - Pulses
    d) Rice - Wheat - Oilseeds – Pulses

    Answer. b

    Explanation:

    As per the Economic Survey 2017-18, area, production, and yield of food grains in 2016-17 is as given below.

    Economic Survey for IAS

    As per the First Advance Estimates (FAE) released on 22nd September, 2017, kharif food grain production during 2017-18 is estimated at 134.7 million tonnes. During the same period in 2016-17, food grain production was 138.5 million tonnes.

    2. Consider the following statements related to the role of women in agriculture in India.
    1) As per Census 2011, out of total female main workers, 55 percent were agricultural labourers.
    2) As per Census 2011, only 12.8 percent of the operational holdings were owned by women.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. c

    Explanation:

    With growing rural to urban migration by men, there is ‘feminisation’ of agriculture sector, with increasing number of women in multiple roles as cultivators, entrepreneurs, and labourers. As per Census 2011, out of total female main workers, 55 percent were agricultural labourers and 24 percent were cultivators. However, only 12.8 percent of the operational holdings were owned by women, which reflect the gender disparity in ownership of land holdings in agriculture. Moreover, there is a concentration of operational holdings (25.7 percent) by women in the marginal and small holdings categories. Against this backdrop, the Economic Survey 2017-18 suggested that women farmers should have enhanced access to resources like land, water, credit, technology and training.

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    3. As per the Index of Crop Diversification 2014-15, which State recorded the most crop diversification in the country?
    a) Karnataka
    b) Punjab
    c) Odisha
    d) Himachal Pradesh

    Answer. a

    Explanation:

    From time-to-time, the Index of Crop Diversification has been computed for major States to examine whether there has been major changes in the cropping pattern across the States. The index value ranges between 0 and 1 and higher the value, the greater the diversification. As per the Index of Crop Diversification 2014-15, with 0.938 points, Karnataka recorded the most crop diversification in the country. It was followed by Maharashtra (0.903), Gujarat (0.900) and Rajasthan (0.884). Low cross diversification was recorded in Odisa (0.340), Chattisgarh (0.491) and Jharkhand (0.578). At the all India level, the value of the Index of Crop Diversification was 0.899.

    4. Consider the following statements.
    1) Seed Replacement Ratio is a measure of how much of the total cropped area was sown with certified seed in comparison to farm saved seeds.
    2) Varietal Replacement Rate is the rate at which the replacement of varieties presently in cultivation with new varieties.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. c

    Explanation:

    Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) or Seed Replacement Ratio is the percentage of area sown out of the total area of crop planted in the season by using certified or quality seeds other than the farm saved seed.

    Varietal replacement is the replacement of varieties presently in cultivation with new varieties providing greater yields and better products. Varietal replacement is one of the most effective ways of raising yields.

    In order to promote Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) and Varietal Replacement Rate (VRR), Seed Project entitled, “Seed Production in Agricultural Crops” is being implemented. As per the Economic Survey 2017-18, during the year 2016-17, total production of quality seed was 620743 quintals against the target of 462404 quintals. In addition, 239 lakh planting materials and 1.9 lakh tissue culture plantlets were also produced.

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    5. Consider the following statements.
    1) In 2014-15, the all India percentage of net irrigated area to total cropped area was 34.5 percent.
    2) In 2014-15, only Punjab and Uttar Pradesh have more than 50 percent net irrigated area to total cropped area in the country.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. c

    Explanation:

    As per the Economic Survey 2017-18, the all India percentage of net irrigated area to total cropped area was 34.5 percent, which makes a large segment of cultivation dependent on rainfall. The State-wise percentage distribution of the net irrigated area to total cropped area shows that only two States, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh have more than 50 percent net irrigated area to total cropped area and only seven states have above 34 percent in 2014-15.

    To increase the coverage of irrigated area, the Union Government launched the Prime Minister’s Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) in 2015. PMKSY has been approved for implementation across the country with an outlay of Rs. 50,000 crore in five years.

    PMKSY Scheme is being implemented in the mission mode with the help of Command Area Development to complete 99 major and medium irrigation projects covering 76.0 lakh hectares in a phased manner by December 2019.

    Economic Survey 2017-18 Analysis: Agricluture and Food Managament

    6. Which of the following is/are the objectives of ‘food grains procurement’ programme of the government?
    1) To provide a fair price to farmers
    2) To make food grains affordable to low income consumers
    3) To maintain buffer stocks for contingencies
    4) To reduce food price volatility

    Select the correct code:
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) 1, 2 and 3
    d) 1,2,3 and 4

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    The food security system in India is managed by intertwined organizational framework between the union government and States. It involves centralized and decentralised procurement of food grains through price support operations, allocation and distribution of food grains at reasonable prices to beneficiaries through TPDS (Targeted Public Distribution System) and the maintenance of buffer stocks for price stabilization. There are multiple objectives to be achieved through the system of procurement operations as implemented in India in terms of providing a fair price to farmers, making food grains affordable to low income consumers, provisioning for contingencies or shortages by maintaining buffer stocks and to reduce food price volatility.

    Best wishes from Jagran Josh!

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