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Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation - Water and Energy Conservation Set II

Oct 6, 2016 16:14 IST

    In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, the subject Environment and Ecology considered as the one of the most important sections among all the subjects of UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The UPSC IAS aspirants required to prepare this subject very well because of growing importance of this subject at global level. So, here we have created Multiple Choice Questions of Environment and Ecology based on the topic Global Warming for UPSC IAS Preparation.

    1.    Consider the following statements regarding the Conventional source of energy:
    I.    The conventional sources of energy are the fossil fuels which took millions of years for the formation of fossil fuels; hence they are limited and non-renewable.
    II.    Fossils are remains of organisms that lived in the past and fossil fuels are plants that got buried under earth that became rock over years.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II
    c.    Both I and II
    d.    Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:


    The conventional sources of energy are the fossil fuels. It took millions of years for the formation of fossil fuels; hence they are limited and non-renewable. Fossils are remains of organisms that lived in the past and fossil fuels are plants that got buried under earth that became rock over years. Fossil fuels have to be unearthed from mines.

    2.    Which of the following statements is not true regarding fossils fuel?
    a.    Coal is solid and it is mined and then transported in trucks and trains.
    b.    Compressed Natural Gas is also used for cooking purpose at home.
    c.    Oil is liquid which is pumped out from the ground after drilling a well. It is sent to far away places in oil tankers or pipe lines.
    d.    Natural gas is a mixture of gases. The gas we use for cooking which comes in cylinders is LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas.

    Answer: b

    Explanation:


    Most fossil fuels release energy as heat. The types of fossil fuels are:

    1. Coal is solid. It is mined and then transported in trucks and trains. In our country coal mines are mostly found in Jharkhand and Bihar.

    2. Oil is liquid which is pumped out from the ground after drilling a well. It is sent to far away places in oil tankers or pipe lines. Oil (petroleum) is used in automobiles and aeroplanes. In India oil is found along the west coast and in Digboi oil fields, Assam.

    3. Natural gas is a mixture of gases. The gas we use for cooking which comes in cylinders is LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Compressed Natural gas or CNG is used in the public transport vehicles (buses, scooters, auto-rickshaws and taxi).

    Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation - Water and Energy Conservation

    3.    In which of the following places the coal mines are not located?
    a.    Raniganj
    b.    Godda
    c.    Jharia
    d.    Dhanbad

    Answer: b

    Explanation:


    Major Coal Mines in India:

    •    Singareni collieries in Khammam district, Telangana

    •    Jharia mines in Dhanbad district, Jharkhand

    •    Nagpur & Chandrapur district, Maharashtra

    •    Singrauli Coalfield and Umaria Coalfield in Madhya Pradesh

    •    Raniganj in Bardhaman district, West Bengal

    •    Neyveli lignite mines in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu

    4.    Which of the following is non-conventional source of energy?
    a.    Oil and Petroleum
    b.    Solar energy
    c.    Wind energy
    d.    Geothermal power

    Answer: a

    Explanation:


    The non-conventional resources are renewable and almost inexhaustible. Of these solar energy or energy from the sun is very important. It is widespread in nature is non-polluting and available free of cost.

    Solar energy is now harnessed through “solar panels” directly which heat homes by solar radiations, solar photovoltaic cells used in solar TVs and solar thermal energy is used to cook food in solar cookers. Solar energy is also used in industries.

    5.    Consider the following statements regarding the energy from biomass:
    I.    Biomass is plant matter produced as a result of photosynthesis and some of it can be burnt to provide heat, for example wood, agricultural waste.
    II.    Biomass can also be used for power generation or converted into alcohol (liquid or methane gas) to be used as fuel.  
    III.    Biomass is renewable energy and shall be available as long as plants grow on earth.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Biomass is plant matter produced as a result of photosynthesis. Some of it can be burnt to provide heat, for example wood, agricultural waste. Biomass can also be used for power generation or converted into alcohol (liquid or methane gas) to be used as fuel.  Since these are obtained from plant material, they are called bio-fuels.

    Biomass is renewable energy and shall be available as long as plants grow on earth. Thus for supplying fuel wood, fast growing trees like oil palm, species such as Euphorbia, Jatropha etc. are planted. Another use of biomass as fuel is to collect agricultural waste and crop residues and animal manure.

    6.    Consider the following statements regarding the bio-fuel:
    I.    Organic wastes, sewage and any other solid biomass can be converted by bacteria into bio-fuels such as biogas.
    II.    Biogas digesters are large vessels in which organic wastes (plants and animals waste) are made to undergo bacterial fermentation and produce biogas which can be used for heating and cooking.
    III.    Methane can be obtained by anaerobic (in absence of air) digestion of manure and sludge of sewage treatment units by means of anaerobic bacteria.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Organic wastes, sewage and any other solid biomass can be converted by bacteria into bio-fuels such as biogas. Biogas digesters are large vessels in which organic wastes (plants and animals waste) are made to undergo bacterial fermentation and produce biogas which can be used for heating and cooking.

    Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Methane can be obtained by anaerobic (in absence of air) digestion of manure and sludge of sewage treatment units by means of anaerobic bacteria.

    7.    Consider the following statements regarding the promotion of Solar Energy in India:
    I.    The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) have initiated schemes and incentives-like subsidy, easy loan, concessional duty on raw material imports, excise duty exemption on certain devices/systems etc. to encourage and use of solar energy systems.
    II.    The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) provides financial helps for the purchase of PV (Photovoltaic) systems.
    III.    Government is planning to set up 10 million square meter solar collector area by 2022.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    India is both densely populated and has high solar insolation, providing an ideal combination for using solar power in India.

    •    The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) have initiated schemes and incentives-like subsidy, easy loan, concessional duty on raw material imports, excise duty exemption on certain devices/systems etc. to encourage and use of solar energy systems.

    •    The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) provides financial helps for the purchase of PV (Photovoltaic) systems.

    •    Government is planning to set up 10 million square meter solar collector area by 2022. This will conserve electricity equivalent to that generated from a 500 MW power plant.

    •    Rajasthan government has set aside 35,000 km2 areas of the Thar Desert for solar power.

    8.    Which of the following states of India has initiated to make the use of solar power mandatory in new multi-storied buildings?
    a.    Gujarat
    b.    West Bengal
    c.    Rajasthan
    d.    Maharashtra

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The state of West Bengal has initiated to make the use of solar power mandatory in new multi-storied buildings while Rajasthan government has set aside 35,000 km2 areas of the Thar Desert for solar power.

    9.    Consider the following statements regarding Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) of India:
    I.    Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is an agency of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Power created in March, 2002 under the provision of Energy Conservation Act.
    II.    The agency’s function is to develop programs which will increase the conservation and efficient uses of energy in India.
    III.    The government has proposed to make it mandatory or compulsory for appliances in India to have ratings by the BEE starting in January 2010.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is an agency of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Power created in March, 2002 under the provision of Energy Conservation Act. The agency’s function is to develop programs which will increase the conservation and efficient uses of energy in India.
    The government has proposed to make it mandatory or compulsory for appliances in India to have ratings by the BEE starting in January 2010.

    •    The BEE Star Energy Efficiency Labels have been created to standardize the energy efficiency ratings of different electrical appliances and indicate energy consumption under standard test conditions.

    •    These labels indicate the energy efficiency levels through the number of stars highlighted in colour on the label.

    •    Star rating system ranges from one star (least energy efficient thus least money saved) to five stars (most energy efficient, thus most money saved).
    Refrigerators, Air conditioners, washing machines, lighting systems etc. will bear the star levels to indicate their energy efficiency.

    10.    The transport sector is the fastest growing source of green house gases, consider the following statements regarding energy and transportation:
    I.    Of the total green house gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2 emissions from road transport vehicles.
    II.    The best way to save energy in transportation is to increase the fuel efficiency of motor vehicles.
    III.    Fuel efficient vehicles powered by a hybrid gas-electric engine and electric vehicles powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen are being developed.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    The transport sector is the fastest growing source of green house gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxides (N2O)). Of the total green house gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2 emissions from road transport vehicles.

    Reducing energy waste requires improving energy efficiency by using less energy to do more useful work. Reducing such energy waste has numerous economic and environmental advantages.

    • The best way to save energy in transportation is to increase the fuel efficiency of motor vehicles.

    • Fuel efficient vehicles powered by a hybrid gas-electric engine and electric vehicles powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen are being developed.

    • Fuel cells are about twice as efficient as internal combustion engines, have no moving parts, require little maintenance and produce little or no pollution.

    • Reva is a small electric car developed in our country. Use of small sized cars instead of big cars and using two wheelers can go a long way in saving energy.

    • Large reductions in energy costs can be done by using vehicles with efficient engine that reduces consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle) or preferably that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life.

    • Using bio-fuels instead of petroleum fuels is a new field where government of India is giving a lot of attention at the moment.

    Click here for IAS Prelims: GS Environment and Ecology: Study Material

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