The significance of Environment and Ecology in IAS Exam has been increased in the last few years. So, an IAS aspirant should also focus on studying and practising questions based on the various topics of Environment and Ecology for IAS Prelims as well as for IAS Mains Exam.
Here, we have provided Environment questions for IAS Prelims Exam based on the topic- Concept of Sustainable Agriculture practices followed by a cultivator in our country.
1. Consider the following statements regarding the sustainable agriculture:
1. Sustainable agriculture is that form of agriculture which attempts to produce sufficient food to meet the needs of the present-day population without exhausting soil fertility and irreversibly damaging the environment.
2. Sustainable farming systems can be highly toxic and energy-intensive practice.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2
Sustainable agriculture is that form of agriculture which attempts to produce sufficient food to meet the needs of the present-day population without exhausting soil fertility and irreversibly damaging the environment. Sustainable farming systems are least toxic and least energy intensive practice which maintains productivity and profitability i.e. low input agriculture or organic farming.
Sustainable agriculture incorporates address many environmentally safe agricultural practices and offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for farmers, labourers, consumers etc., policymakers and many others in the entire food system.
2. Which of the following methods can be adopted in sustainable agriculture system?
1. Cultivation practices to increase biological and economic stability
2. Selection of improved varieties to suit the need
3. Soil management by proper method of tillage
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a. 2 only
b. 1 and 2
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2 and 3
The practices of sustainable production involve a variety of approaches. At the planning level, one must take into account the local geography i.e. topography, soil condition and nature, local climate, pests, local inputs and the farmer’s goals.
The cultivators (farmer) must adopt appropriate practices. Several methods adopted in sustainable agriculture are:
• Cultivation practices to increase biological and economic stability
• Selection of improved varieties to suit the need.
• Soil management by a proper method of tillage.
Many farmers in India and other developing countries follow the traditional practice of mixed cropping or diverse cropping and crop rotation.
4. Match the following:
|A. Polyvarietal cultivation||1. Different plants maturing at various times are planted together|
|B. Intercropping||2. Only one crop variety is sown in the entire area when only one cultivator is planted in a large area|
|C. Polyculture||3. Two or more different crops are grown at the same time on a plot|
|D. Monoculture||4. Several genetic varieties of the same crop are planted|
A B C D
a. 2 1 4 3
b. 4 3 1 2
c. 3 4 1 2
d. 1 2 4 3
Mixed cropping or diverse cropping is an old practice in our country. Two or more crops are grown all at the same time in a field. If by chance one crop fails, the others crops cover the risk of total crop failure. Usually, a long duration crop is grown with a short duration one so that both get sufficient nutrition at the time of maturity. Then, water and nutrient requirement are also different.
Generally, a leguminous crop is grown along with the main crop. Legumes help to increase soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen which saves the cost of chemical fertilizers.
The various plans followed in diverse or mixed cropping practices are:
• Polyvarietal cultivation where several genetic varieties of the same crop are planted.
• Intercropping where two or more different crops are grown at the same time on a plot like a carbohydrate rich cereal that uses soil nitrogen and nitrogen-fixing legume which puts back the nitrogen in the soil.
• Polyculture, in which different plants maturing at various times are planted together. This practice has many advantages because fertilizer and water requirement of plants are different so there is less need for these inputs. Pests are controlled naturally because their natural predators find multiple habitats to survive. It has been found that this practice produces much higher yield per hectare as compared to monoculture.
Large-scale mechanization leads to the spread of monoculture i.e. only one crop variety is sown in the entire area when only one cultivator is planted in a large area. This system uses a lot of fertilizer, pesticide, water. This practice may be productive for some time but causes environmental and economic problems.
5. A practice of growing different crops in a regular succession in the same field which helps to control the growing up of insects & diseases and also helps to increase the soil fertility and decrease soil erosion called:
a. Crop rotation
b. Mixed cropping
c. Organic farming
d. Diverse Cropping
It is the practice of growing different crops in regular succession in the same field. This practice controls insects and diseases, increases soil fertility and decreases soil erosion. Generally, soil cannot sustain continuous cropping with the high yielding single crop because certain nutrients required by the crop get totally exhausted while others remain unutilized leading to serious nutrients imbalance in soil and encouraging certain diseases and pests. Sowing a leguminous crop (eg. green gram) as a rotational crop is very useful because legumes enhance nitrogen level in the soil due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, reduces the need for chemical nitrogen fertilizer. Thereby cutting the cost and saving the soil from the harmful effects of using high yielding varieties along with the application of the large amount of fertilizer, pesticides and water. It is possible to grow two or sometimes three different crops in succession on the same land within a year which is known as multiple cropping. This practice can go on for some time but the land cannot maintain high yield in the long run.