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Environment Questions for IAS: Environmental Legislation in India Part 2

Feb 13, 2018 18:10 IST
    Environment Questions for IAS Environmental Legislation in India
    Environment Questions for IAS Environmental Legislation in India

    The IAS aspirants must be aware of the past conventions and protocols took place as the environment legislation at a global scale. In the last few years, it has been noticed that a large number of questions associated with the environment and ecology occupy the UPSC IAS Prelims Exam question paper.

    IAS Prelims Exam Guide

    So, it is very important for the IAS aspirants to practice questions based on each and every aspect of environment and ecology for the IAS Exam.

    1. Consider the following statements regarding the biodiversity legislation in India:
    1. The main intent of this legislation is to protect India’s rich biodiversity and associated knowledge against their use by foreign individuals and organizations without sharing the benefits arising out of such use and to check bio-piracy.
    2. The Biological Diversity Bill was introduced in the Parliament on 15th May 2000 and it has been passed by the Lok Sabha on 2nd December 2002 and by the Rajya Sabha on 11th December 2002.
    3. The Act provides for setting up of a National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs) and Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) in local bodies.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    India’s richness in biological resources and indigenous knowledge relating to them is well recognized. One of the major challenges is in adopting an instrument which helps realize the objectives of equitable benefit sharing enshrined in the Convention. Towards this, legislation on biodiversity was developed following an extensive consultative process. The legislation aims at regulating access to biological resources so as to ensure equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use. The Biological Diversity Bill, which was introduced in the Parliament on 15th May 2000, was referred to the department related Parliamentary Standing Committee for Science, Technology, Environment and Forests for examination and report.

    After examination of witnesses and recording evidence, the Standing Committee approved the Bill with some amendments. The Cabinet approved the proposal for moving the official amendments based upon the recommendations of the Committee. The Biological Diversity Bill 2002 has been passed by the Lok Sabha on 2nd December 2002 and by the Rajya Sabha on 11th December 2002. The main intent of this legislation is to protect India’s rich biodiversity and associated knowledge against their use by foreign individuals and organizations without sharing the benefits arising out of such use and to check bio-piracy. The Act provides for setting up of a National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs) and Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) in local bodies. NBA and SBB are required to consult BMCs in decisions relating to the use of biological resources or related knowledge within their jurisdiction and BMCs are to promote conservation, sustainable use and documentation of biodiversity.

    Environment Questions for IAS: Environmental Legislation in India Part 1

    2. Consider the following statements regarding the Forest Conservation) Act of 1980:
    1. The Forest Act was promulgated in 1980 to make certain reforms over the preceding Act of 1927.
    2. The 1927 Act deals with the four categories of the forests, namely reserved forests, village forests, protected forests and private forests.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Alarmed at India’s rapid deforestation and resulting environmental degradation, Centre Government enacted the Forest (Conservation) Act in1980. Under the provisions of this Act, prior approval of the Central Government is required for diversion of forestlands for non-forest purposes. An Advisory Committee constituted under the Act advises the Centre on these approvals.

    First Forest Act was enacted in 1927. This is one of the many surviving colonial legislation. It was enacted to consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce and the duty livable on timber and other forest produce. Subsequently, the Forest (Conservation) Act was promulgated in 1980 to make certain reforms over the preceding Act of 1927.The 1927 Act deals with the four categories of the forests, namely reserved forests, village forests, protected forests and private forests. A state may declare forestlands or wastelands as reserved forest and may sell the produce from these forests. Any unauthorized felling of trees quarrying, grazing and hunting in reserved forests is punishable with a fine or imprisonment, or both reserved forests assigned to a village community are called village forests.

    Environment and Ecology Quiz for IAS Preparation: Modern Agriculture

    3. Consider the following statements regarding the international legislation to regulate resources at a global scale:
    1. There is no international legislation body with authority to pass legislation similar to national legislation, nor are there international agencies with the power to regulate resources at a global scale.
    2. Most of the international legislations are international agreements to which nations adhere voluntarily which are generally finalized through international conventions or treaties.
    3. To support the conventions, some time protocols are also to be framed and a protocol is an international agreement that stands on its own but is linked to an existing convention.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    There is no international legislation body with authority to pass legislation similar to national legislation, nor are there international agencies with the power to regulate resources at a global scale. As a result, international legislation must depend on the agreement of the parties concerned. Certain issues of multinational concern are addressed by a collection of policies, agreements, and treaties that are loosely called International Environmental Legislations. Most of the international legislations are international agreements to which nations adhere voluntarily. These agreements are generally finalized through international conventions or treaties. Nations that have agreed to be bound by the convention are known as Parties. Convention provides a framework to be respected by each party, which has to adopt its own national legislation to make sure that convention is implemented at national level. To support the conventions, some time protocols are also to be framed. A protocol is an international agreement that stands on its own but is linked to an existing convention. This means that the climate protocol shares the concerns and principles set out in the climate convention. It then builds on these by adding new commitments-which are stronger and far more complex and detailed than those in the convention.

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    4. Consider the following statements regarding the Ramsar Convention:
    1. It is an Indian convention came into force in 1975 provides the framework for international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetland habitats.
    2. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) serves as the Depositary for the Convention, and its secretariat, the Ramsar Bureau, is in Gland, Switzerland.
    3. India became a signatory to this convention on in 1981.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    It is an international convention came into force in 1975. The convention provides the framework for international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetland habitats. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) serves as the Depositary for the Convention, and its secretariat, the Ramsar Bureau, is in Gland, Switzerland. India became a signatory to this convention on in 1981. The Convention aims to halt the loss of wetlands and to ensure the conservation of fauna and flora and their ecological processes. Obligations of parties include:

    • designating one or more wetlands for inclusion in the list of Wetlands of International Importance (e.g. six Ramsar wetlands in India).
    • promoting the wise judicious use of wetlands, including mangroves.
    • promoting conservation of wetlands through the establishment of nature reserves.
    • irrespective of their listing under the Convention and managing wetlands for the benefit of waterfowl.
    • promoting training in the field of wetland research, managing and warding.
    • consulting with other parties about the implementation of the convention, especially with regard to trans frontier wetlands, shared water systems, shared species, and development of wetland projects.

    IAS Prelims Environment and Ecology Questions: Degradation of natural environment

    5. Consider the following statements regarding the Montreal Protocol:
    1. To pursue the objectives of the convention for the protection of ozone layer the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone layer was agreed to by nations in 1987 and has since been amended five times so far.
    2. The Protocol aims to reduce and eventually eliminate the emission of man-made ozone-depleting substances.
    3. Its control provisions were strengthened through five amendments to the Protocol adopted in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999).

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been addressing this issue since 1977. Under the auspices of UNEP, the nations of the world arrived at The Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in Vienna in 1985. Through this convention, nations committed themselves to protecting the ozone layer and to co-operate with each other in scientific research to improve understanding of the atmospheric processes and serious consequences of ozone depletion.

    The convention provides for future protocols and specified procedures for amendment and dispute settlement. To pursue the objectives of the convention for the protection of ozone layer the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone layer was agreed to by nations in 1987 and has since been amended five times so far. Its control provisions were strengthened through five amendments to the Protocol adopted in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999). The Protocol aims to reduce and eventually eliminate the emission of man-made ozone-depleting substances. The Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol are considered as a highly effective regime for reducing and possibly, in the future, eliminating –emissions of ozone, depleting chemicals into the atmosphere.

    IAS Prelims 2018 Exam : GS Environment and Ecology : Study Material

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