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IAS Prelims Exam: NIOS: Human Modified Ecosystem Questions Set II

Feb 5, 2016 12:53 IST

    Environment and Ecology has become indispensable for IAS Prelims Exam. Candidates cannot dispense with this section. In future also Importance of Environment and Ecology cannot be underestimated. Following are some MCQs that would help candidates to understand the kinds of questions they are going to face from Environment and Ecology section in IAS Prelims Exam:

    Q1. Which of the following is/are the limitations of aquaculture?

    1. Aquaculture tanks or reservoirs are often getting contaminated after a few years.
    2. Destroys mangrove forests or coastal vegetation.
    3. Produces large amounts of fish wastes that pollute water bodies

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: other limitations of aquaculture: Loss of native aquatic biodiversity. As it replaced by monoculture of a commercially important fish species, Aquaculture fishes are very sensitive to pesticide runoff from croplands, in aquaculture ponds high population density is maintained that makes them highly vulnerable to diseases leading to total collapse of the crop.

    Q2. Which of the following are limitations of dam?

    1. Reduce river silting below the dam.
    2. Increase water pollution on account of reduced water flow.
    3. Change physico-chemical quality of water.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Reducing river silting below the dam is advantage of dam. The other limitations are Reduce nutrients replacement of downstream flood plains, Disrupt spawning and migration of some fish species.

    Q3. Industries and modern transport networks harm the environment in which of the following ways?

    1. Destroy the natural habitat of animals
    2. Create noise and thermal pollution
    3. Release Gaseous pollutants like Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Industries and modern transport networks have not only destroyed the natural habitat of animals but also create noise and thermal pollution. This is seriously affecting growth and reproduction of wild species of plants and animals resulting in loss of biodiversity.

    Q4. Chemicals used today impact human health in which of the following?

    1. Increased sensitivity to diseases
    2. Genetic resistance in the humans
    3. Genetic mutations in humans

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 3
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Use of various types of chemicals today has serious health implications. Incidence of cancer, genetic mutations and damage to nervous, immune and hormonal systems have been increase because the use of insecticides, pesticides and antibiotics has speeded up directional natural selection and caused genetic resistance in the pathogens.

    Q5. With reference to impact of environmental degradation on human health, which of the following is/are true?

    1. Incidence of cancer
    2. Damage to nervous system
    3. Damage immune and hormonal systems.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Also new disease such as AIDS, mad cow diseases, bird flu and swine flu have emerged in fast succession due to growing damage to ecology.

    Q6. Gas that is released during burning of plastics is

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Chlorofluorocarbon
    b.phosgene (COCl2)
    c.poly chlorinated biphenyles (PCBs)
    d. Methyl isocyanate

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Burning of plastics: Emit poly chlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) which are harmful for lungs and vision.

    Q7. Which of the following catalyses growing damage to ecology?

    1. Introduction of new alien species
    2. Overgrazing by livestock, over harvesting of edible fishes
    3. Use of fertilizers in agricultural fields
    4. Soil erosion and loss of productivity

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 3 and 4
    c.Only1,  2 and 3
    d.1,2,3 and 4

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Introduction of new alien species or non-native species reduces the population’s growth of native species, overgrazing by livestock results in soil erosion and loss of productivity. Similarly over harvesting of edible fishes reduces population, Use of fertilizers in agricultural fields interferes with the natural biogeochemical cycles. Soil erosion and loss of productivity are consequences of damage to ecology.

    Q8. which of the following has caused genetic resistance in pathogens?

    1. Use of insecticides
    2.  Use of pesticides
    3. Use of antibiotics

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: An increased use of insecticides, pesticides and antibiotics has speeded
    up directional natural selection and caused genetic resistance in the pathogens.

    Q9. Which of the following Constitutes Eco-industrial revolution?

    1. Recycling or reutilizing most of the industrial waste
    2. Networking of different industries in complex resource exchange web
    3. Strive for higher efficiency of energy and resource use.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Eco-industrial revolution refers to a new resource and efficient production system generating minimum waste. Networking of different industries in complex resource exchange web where the waste of one industry is used as a raw material by for the other and so on.

    Q10. Which of the following interferes with natural geochemical cycles?

    1. Use of fertilizers
    2. Overgrazing by livestock
    3. Use of pesticides

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1

    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation: Use of fertilizers in agricultural fields interferes with the natural biogeochemical cycles.

    Q11. With reference to plantation forest, plantation forest includes trees planted on which of the following?

    1.  Land not suitable for agriculture
    2. Railway line
    3. Barren land

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:  plantation forest is a man made ecosystem consisting of individuals of a particular tree species. Trees planted on barren land, private land, village panchayat land, roadsides, canal banks, along with railway line and on land not suitable for agriculture.

    Q12. Which of the following is/ are true about advantages of Aquaculture?

    1. Improved qualities of fish obtained
    2. Aquaculture reduces over harvesting of fisheries
    3. Ecological efficiency is high.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: 10 kg. of grains are required to add 2 kg live weight, High yield in small volume of water, Improved qualities of fish obtained by selection and breeding and genetic engineering, Aquaculture reduces over harvesting of fisheries, High profit.

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