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SSC Combined Higher Secondary Exam: General Intelligence: Syllogism - Study Material

Oct 1, 2013 15:22 IST

    Staff Selection Commission is all set to conduct the written examination for SSC Combined Higher Secondary Level Examination 2013 to recruit candidates for various posts of Data Entry Operator and Lower Division Clerk. SSC – CHSL Written Examination is scheduled to be conducted on 20 October 2013, 27 October 2013, and 10 November 2013, and will comprise 200 questions divided in 4 different sections -- General Intelligence, General Awareness, Quantitative Aptitude, and English Language.

    The General Intelligence Section of SSC - Combined Higher Secondary Level Examination contains 50 questions from topics like Classifications, Analogy, Syllogism, Coding-decoding, Directions, Blood relation etc. Though this section is quite a challenging in nature, it is considered as the most scoring ground according to the paper.

    Here, the SSC experts of Jagranjosh.com have provided with the description of Syllogism chapter to let you understand the basic concept of the subject.

    Syllogism

    Syllogism is mode of thinking in which one reasons from two statements or propositions, called premises to a third statement or a propositions called the conclusion. A premise is a statement that serves as the basis of the argument. Let us see some statements to elaborate the concept.

    1. All stars twinkle

    In this statement all the stars are twinkles, hence they should come under twinkles. So the representation will be as follows:

    S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    2. Some stars twinkle

    As in this statement only some stars are twinkles, there should be two intersecting circles. So the representation will be as follows:

    The shaded area represents the stars that twinkle. S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    3. No stars twinkle

    As no stars twinkle, hence these two are independent of each other. So the representation will be as follows:

    S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    4. Only stars twinkle

    In this case only stars twinkle, twinkle will come under stars. Nothing else can twinkle so twinkle will not have anything except starts intersecting with it. So the representation will be as follows:

    S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    Let us now see some examples to understand this better.

    Example 1)

    Statements:
    1. All trees are green.
    2. Banyan is a tree.

    Solution) We will get the following diagrams from the above two statements.

    B = Banyan, T = Tree, G = Green,
    As seen from the diagram, if all trees are green and Banyan is a tree. Banyan is included in the set of Greens and must be Green as well.

    Example 2)

    Statements:
    1. Some professors are serious peoples.
    2. All serious people wear spectacles.

    Solution) We will get the following diagrams from the above two statements.

    Therefore some professors wear spectacles. Here the shaded area represents those professors who wear spectacles

    Example 3)

    Statements:
    1. All dogs bark.
    2. Tommy barks

    Solution) Here, Tommy is another element in the set of barking things and may not be a dog. The diagrammatic representation would be as follows:

    However, here we cannot conclude that Tommy is a dog. All we can conclude is that Tommy may or may not be a dog.

    Questions in the form of Statement - Conclusion

    Directions (Q.1-3): In each group of questions below are given two/three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two/three statements, disregarding commonly known facts. Give answer

    1) if only conclusion I follows.
    2) if only conclusion II follows.
    3) if either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
    4) if neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows.
    5) if both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.

    1. Statements:
    Some exams are tests.
    No exam is a question.

    Conclusions:
    I. No question is a test.
    II. Some tests are definitely not exams.

    Solution:
    1. 4; Some exams are tests → conversion → Some tests are exams (I) + No exam is a question (E) = I + E = O = Some tests are not questions.
    Hence, neither conclusion I nor II follows.

    2. Statements:
    All forces are energies.
    All energies are powers.
    No power is heat.

    Conclusions:
    I. Some forces are definitely not powers.
    II. No heat is force.

    Solution:
    2. 2; All forces are energies (A) + All energies are powers (A) = A + A = A = All forces are powers (A) + No power is heat (E) = A + E = E = No force is heat → conversion → No heat is force.

    Hence, conclusion II follows but conclusion I does not follow.

    3. Statements:
    All forces are energies.
    All energies are powers.
    No power is heat.

    Conclusions:
    I. No energy is heat.
    II. Some forces being heat is a possibility.

    Solution:
    3. 1; All energies are powers (A) + No power is heat (E) = A + E = E = No energy is heat.

    Hence, conclusion I follows.

    But, All forces are power (A) + No power is heat (E) = A + E = E = No force is heat.

    So, conclusion II does not follow.

    Questions From Previous Year Papers

    (From SSC Higher Secondary Level Exam 2012)

    Directions (1-2): In each of the following questions, two statements are given followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

    1. Statements:
    (1) Best performance in Olympics fetches a gold medal.
    (2) Player 'X' got gold medal but later was found to be using a prohibited drug.
    Conclusions:
    (I) 'X' should be allowed to keep the gold medal.
    (II) Gold medal should be withdrawn and given to the next person.
    (1) Only conclusion (II) follows
    (2) N either conclusion (I) nor (II) follows
    (3) Both conclusions (I) and (II) follow
    (4) Only conclusion (I) follows

    2. Statements:
    (1) All books are novels.
    (2) Some novels are poems.
    Conclusions:
    (I) Some books are poems.
    (II) Some poems are novels.
    (1) Only conclusion (II) follows
    (2) Neither conclusion (I) nor (II) follows
    (3) Both conclusions (I) and (II) follow
    (4) Only conclusion (I) follows

    Solutions:

    1. (1) In a particular situation when a player is found guilty of doping, his medal is confiscated and it is given to the runner up. Therefore, only Conclusion II follows.

    2. (1)

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