The Anti-Ballistic Missiles Treaty was unanimously took place between the United States of America and Soviet Union to curb the limitation on ballistic Missile Systems which is used for defending those areas where nuclear weapons were delivered against ballistic Missile.
It was signed on May 26, 1972 and entered into force on October 3, 1972. The treaty originally permitted both countries to deploy two fixed, ground-based defense sites of 100 missile interceptors each. One site could protect the national capital, while the second could be used to guard an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) field. In a protocol signed July 3, 1974, the two sides halved the number of permitted defenses.
What all things were prohibited by ABM Treaty?
• Missile defenses that can protect all U.S. or Soviet/Russian territory against strategic ballistic missiles
• Establishing a base for a nationwide defense against strategic ballistic missiles
• Development, testing, or deployment of sea-, air-, space-, or mobile land-based ABM systems or components. (Because of the inability of either country to verify activities behind closed doors, the development and testing ban was understood to apply when components and systems moved from laboratory to field testing.)
• Development, testing, or deployment of strategic missile interceptor launchers that can fire more than one interceptor at a time or are capable of rapid reload
• Upgrading existing non-ABM missiles, launchers, or radars to have ABM capabilities and testing existing missiles, launchers, or radars in an ABM mode (i.e. against strategic or long-range ballistic missile targets)
• Deployment of radars capable of early warning of strategic ballistic missile attack anywhere other than on the periphery of U.S. or Soviet/Russian territory and oriented outward
• Deployment of ABM radars capable of tracking and discriminating incoming strategic targets and guiding defensive interceptors, except within a 150 kilometre radius of the one permitted defense
• Transfer or deployment of ABM systems or components outside U.S. and Soviet/Russian territory.
What all things were permitted by ABM Treaty?
• One regional defense of 100 ground-based missile interceptors to protect either the capital or an ICBM field
• A total of 15 missile interceptor launchers at designated missile defense test ranges
• Research, laboratory, and fixed land-based testing of any type of missile defense
• Use of national technical means, such as satellites, to verify compliance. (The ABM Treaty was the first treaty to prohibit a state-party from interfering with another state-party's national technical means of verification.)
• States-parties to raise questions about compliance, as well as any other treaty-related issue, at the Standing Consultative Commission, which was a body established by the treaty that meets at least twice per year
• Theatre (nonstrategic) missile defenses of any type to protect against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles. (The ABM Treaty originally did not specifically delineate the point at which a missile defense would be considered strategic or nonstrategic. The United States and Russia negotiated and signed a demarcation agreement on this subject in September 1997. Russia ratified the agreement in May 2000, but it has never been transmitted to the Senate for its advice and consent, and therefore the agreement has not entered into force. The Bush administration's June 13 withdrawal from the ABM Treaty makes the demarcation agreement moot)
• Either state-party to propose amendments
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