The Coastal zones are defined by the extent of territorial waters up to the high water mark. They are long, narrow features of mainland, islands and seas, generally forming the outer boundary of the coastal domain. The Coastal Zone Management (CZMA) is a process of governance that consists of the legal and institutional framework necessary to ensure that development and management plans for coastal zones are integrated with environmental and social goals, and are developed with the participation of those affected.
The goals of the Coastal Management (CZMA) are to “preserve, protect, develop, enhance, and restore where possible, the coastal resources.” The purposes of Coastal Zone Management are given below:
1. To maximize the benefits provided by the coastal zone
2. To minimize conflicts and harmful effects of activities upon each other, resources and the environment
3. To promote linkages between sectoral activities
4. To guide coastal area development in an ecologically sustainable fashion
The prime objective of CZM is to create balance between development needs and protection of natural resources which means if coastal ecosystems are manage through the guiding principles of sustainability then livelihoods of millions will be protected and their survival guaranteed.
“To preserve and protect the coastal zone from activities that may cause degradation of quality or loss of coastal land”
The Coastal Zone Management is an interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral approach to problem definition and solutions in the coastal zone. Hence, faces numerous challenges which are given below:
1. Failure to appreciate the interconnections within coastal systems
2. Inadequate legislation and lack of enforcement
3. Limited understanding and experience in ICZM
4. Limited understanding of coastal and marine processes
5. Lack of trained personnel, relevant technologies and equipment
The Coastal Zone Management (CZM) is based on two sets of principle- firstly agreed international norms, which were set out in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; and secondly based on bio-physical nature of the coastal zone.