Difference between Public Bill and Private Bill

The legislative procedure is identical in both the Houses of Parliament. Every bill has to pass through the same procedure in each House. A bill is a proposal for legislation and it becomes an act or law when duly passed by both houses of the parliament and signed by the president of India.
Created On: Jul 6, 2020 17:16 IST
Modified On: Jul 6, 2020 17:20 IST
Public Bill VS Private Bill
Public Bill VS Private Bill

Bills introduced in Parliament are of two kinds: public bills and private bills (also known as government bills and private members’ bills respectively). Though both are governed by the same general procedure and pass through the same stages in the House.

Public Bill is presented in parliament by a minister only while the private bills can be presented by any member of parliament. Let us see one by one;

Private Bill: A private bill is a proposal for a law that would apply to a particular individual or group of individuals or corporate entities. Private law can provide relief from another law, grant a special benefit or powers not available under the present law, or relieve someone from legal responsibility for some allegedly wrongful act.
  

A private bill is not to be confused with a private member's bill. A private bill is just introduced in the legislature by a member of the house, not by the minister of the ruling party.

Here are some differences between these two bills given below:

Public Bill

Private Bill

1. It is introduced in the parliament by a minister.

1. It can be introduced by any member of the parliament other than a minister.

2. It reflects the policies of the government (ruling party).

2. It reflects the mood of the political party on the public matter.

3. It has a greater chance to be passed by parliament.

3. It is less likely to be passed by the parliament.

4. Its rejection in the lower house of the parliament may lead to the resignation of the while cabinet.

4. Its rejection by the house has no implication on the parliamentary confidence of the ruling party.

5. Its introduction in the house requires 7 days notice.

5. Its introduction in the house requires one month.

6. It is drafted by the concerned department in consultation with the law department.

6. Its drafting is the responsibility of the members concerned.

At the macro-level analysis; bills introduced in the parliament are categorized in 4 categories i.e. Ordinary bills, Money bills, financial bills, and Constitution amendment bills.

1. Ordinary bills, which are concerned with any matter other than financial subjects.

2. Money bills, which are concerned with financial matters like taxation, public expenditure etc.

3. Financial bills, which are also concerned with financial matters (but are different from money bills).

4. Constitution amendment bills, which are concerned with the amendment of the provisions of the Constitution.

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