Do you know that brain contains billions of nerve cells which are arranged in a pattern and coordinate thought, emotion, behaviour, movement etc? These nerves connect brain with rest of the body and communication occurs in a seconds. There are certain ways to do things; we can even do multitask at times if needed. How is this possible? How brain function together and in a split of seconds how it gives response. Like we pull our hand back when we touch a hot stove. All parts of the brain work together and responsible for specific function. Let us find out how brain function or work through this article.
Parts of Brain
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The brain has three parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem. The brainstem includes the medulla, the pons and the midbrain which helps in controlling breathing, digestion, heart rate, autonomic process. It also connects brain with spinal cord and rest of the body. On the other hand cerebellum plays an important role in balance, emotional functions, memories etc. The cerebrum or forebrain makes 75% of the brain by volume.
10 interesting facts about Human Brain
How Human Brain Works?
The outermost layer of the cerebrum is known as cerebral cortex or gray matter of the brain. There are folds and wrinkles in the brain in this part which increases the surface area of the gray matter, so that more information can be processed. Further the cerebrum is divided in to two parts or two hemispheres. With the help of nerves known as corpus callosum, the part of the hemisphere communicates with each other. The left hemisphere is responsible for speech and abstract thinking in most people; the right hemisphere is responsible for spatial thinking. We can say that the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. That is if left hemisphere damage due to stroke then it means that it leads to paralysis on the right side of the body.
As discussed above these hemispheres are divided in to four lobes:
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Control and Coordination in Humans
- The frontal lobe control thinking, planning, short-term memory, movement etc.
- The parietal lobe responsible for sensory information like taste, temperature, touches etc.
- The occipital lobe process images from eyes and linked that information with images stored in memory.
- The temporal lobe process information of senses like smell, sound and also plays an important role in storing memory.
The cerebellum is a wrinkled ball of tissue behind and below the rest of brain. It combines sensory information from the eyes, ears and muscle to help in coordinate movement. Brain stem links the brain to the spinal cord and controls functions like heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. This area of brain is also responsible for sleep.
Deep structures inside the brain are known as limbic system which helps in controlling emotions and memories.
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- The thalamus act as a gatekeeper for message passed between the spinal cord and the cerebral hemispheres.
- The hypothalamus controls emotions. Helps in regulating body temperature, sleeping, eating etc.
- The hippocampus stores memory in the cerebrum and when requires recall them.
Nervous system also plays an important role. Apart from the brain and spinal cord rest all the nerves constitute peripheral nervous system. It act as a communication between brain and other things like when you touch a hot iron suddenly you pulled back your hand within a seconds. This happens when your brain tells the muscles of your hand to snatch off from the hot iron. Therefore, it is not wrong to say that nerve cells also play an important role to transform message from one neuron to another part to another. Hence also known as neurotransmitters.