Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020: Indicators, Dimensions, India Scenario and Key Findings

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) data and publication Charting pathways out of multidimensional poverty: Achieving the SDGs was recently released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and therefore the Oxford Poverty Human Development Initiative (OPHI). Let us read it in detail.
Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020
Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020

On 16 July, 2020, Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2020 data and publication "Charting pathways out of multidimensional poverty: Achieving the SDGs was released by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative at the University of Oxford and therefore the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme. 

What is the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)?

It measures the complexities of poor people's lives, individually and collectively, each year. The report also focuses on how multidimensional poverty has declined. Multidimensional Poverty Indices use a various range of indicators to calculate a summary poverty figure for a given population, in which a larger figure indicates a higher level of poverty. In 2010, MPI was developed by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and therefore the United Nations Development Programme. It uses indicators namely health, education, and standard of living to determine the incidence and intensity of poverty experienced by a population. 

The report covers around 5 billion people and provides a comprehensive picture of global trends in multidimensional poverty. Let us tell you that the index shows the proportion of poor people and the average number of deprivations each poor person experiences at the same time.

What is Poverty and its types?

Multidimensional Poverty Index: Dimensions and Indicators

MPI identifies how people are being left behind across three key dimensions namely health, education, and standard of living, comprising 10 indicators. People who experience deprivation in a minimum of one-third of those weighted indicators fall under the category of multidimensionally poor. 

10 Indicators are:

Child mortality
Years of schooling
School attendance
Cooking Fuel
Drinking water

Multidimensional Poverty Index: Key Findings (Globally)

In 75 countries, it was observed from the East, Central and South Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa as well as the Pacific. It basically provides a comprehensive picture of global trends in multidimensional poverty covering five billion people. 

65 out of 75 countries that were studied have lowered their MPI value and 50 nations have been reduced the number of people living in poverty, as per the study. Around 273 million people moved out of multidimensional poverty in India according to the study. Further, it states that three South Asian nations India, Bangladesh, and Nepal were among the 16 fastest countries to reduce their MPI value.

- Around 1.3 billion people are still living in multidimensional poverty, 

- Higher rates of multidimensional poverty are shown in children: half of multidimensionally poor people that is 644 million are children under age 18. One in three children is poor as compared with one in six adults.

- About 84.3 percent of multidimensionally poor people reside in Sub-Saharan Africa (558 million) and South Asia (530 million).

- In middle-income countries 67 percent multidimensionally poor people where the incidence of multidimensional poverty ranges from 0 to 57 percent national and from 0 percent to 91 percent sub nationally.

- In a critical mass of indicators, every multidimensionally poor person is being left behind. Like 803 million multidimensionally poor people live in a household where someone is undernourished, 476 million have an out-of-school child at home, etc. 

- The study shows that between 2000 and 2019, 65 out of 75 countries significantly reduced their multidimensional poverty levels.

- Around 107 million multidimensionally poor people are age 60 or older.

- The study has found that four countries namely India, Armenia, Nicaragua, and North Macedonia have reduced their MPI by half or more in 5.5 to 10.5 years. 

- 70 million people left multidimensional poverty between 2010 and 2014 in China and the numbers declined by 19 million between 2014 and 2019 in Bangladesh.

Multidimensional Poverty Index: India Scenario

Between 2005-06 and 2016-17, at least 271 million people were lifted out of multi-dimensional poverty which is claimed by India's Voluntary National Review (VNR) of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The estimates that were presented are drawn from the 2019 global Multidimensional Poverty Index that was released in July 2019. As per global MPI, over 640 million people across India were in multidimensional poverty in 2005-2006. The number of people living under poverty decreased to around 369.55 million by 2016-2017.

Let us have a look at poverty in India

- In 2005-2006, 55.1 percent of the population lived in India under multidimensional poverty as per the study and in 2015-16, it came down to 27.9 percent.

- The intensity of deprivation was 43.9 percent in 2015-16 whereas the population under severe multidimensional poverty was 8.8 percent.

- 37.7 crore people in India lived under multidimensional poverty as of 2018, as per the study.

- The percentage of people who were deprived of nutrition in India was 21.2 percent as of 2016. Around 26.2 percent of people were deprived of cooking fuel. Those people who were deprived of sanitation and drinking water were 24.6 percent and 6.2 percent respectively. People who were deprived of electricity and housing are at 8.6 percent and 23.6 percent of the year.

Let us brief you that the study also highlights the correlation between multidimensional poverty and immunisation. Also, the percentage of children receiving three doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP3) vaccines had been used as an indicator of how well countries were providing routine immunisation. 

As per the study, 10 countries accounted for 60 percent, unvaccinated children. Around 40 percent of the children who were not vaccinated for DTP3 lived in four countries namely India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Indonesia.

According to the report, populated developing countries could contribute considerably to a large number of unvaccinated children despite achieving high immunisation coverage. In India, around 2.6 million children were "under-vaccinated".

What is the impact of COVID-19 pandemic?

No doubt the COVID-19 pandemic has a huge impact on the development landscape. As per the study, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, on average, poverty levels will be set back to 3 to 10 years.

About Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)

The main aim of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to end poverty in all its forms everywhere by 2030-Goal 1 of the SDGs.  The index focuses on measuring and monitoring progress towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 1. It also provides policymakers with the info to reply to the decision of Target 1.2, which is to ‘reduce a minimum of by half the proportion of men, women, and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definition''

Sustainable Development: Background, Definition, Pillars, and Objectives



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