The movement of people from region to region for the purpose of permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary is called Human Migration. For example: "semi-permanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm labourers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Birth and death is another reason for the population size changes. When people move from one place to another, the place they move from is called the Place of Origin and the place they move to is called the Place of Destination. The place of origin shows a decrease in population while the population increases in the place of destination. It may be interpreted as a spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between population and resources. Migration may be permanent, temporary or seasonal. It may take place from rural to rural areas, rural to urban areas, urban to urban areas and urban to rural areas.
Types of Migration
• Internal Migration: Moving to a new home within a state, country, or continent.
• External Migration: Moving to a new home in a different state, country, or continent.
• Emigration: The act of entering a foreign country to live.
• Immigration: The act of leaving a country to live in another.
• Population Transfer: When a government forces a large group of people out of a region, usually based on ethnicity or religion. This is also known as an involuntary or forced migration.
• Impelled Migration: Individuals are not forced out of their country, but leave because of unfavourable situations such as warfare, political problems, or religious persecution.
• Step Migration: A series of shorter, less extreme migrations from a person's place of origin to final destination. For example- moving from a farm, to a village, to a town, and finally to a city.
• Chain Migration: A series of migrations within a family or defined group of people. A chain migration often begins with one family member who sends money to bring other family members to the new location. Chain migration results in migration fields—the clustering of people from a specific region into certain neighbourhoods or small towns.
• Return Migration: The voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin. This is also known as circular migration.
• Seasonal Migration: The process of moving for a period of time in response to labour or climate conditions.
Causes of Migration
• The Push factors make the place of origin seem less attractive for reasons like unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
• The Pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin for reasons like better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.
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