A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound.
Molecules are made up of atom s that are held together by chemical bonds.
The size or hydrodynamic radius RH can be determined in two ways. The first method is by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), which is generally used as a batch technique to measure the average size in the whole sample, but can be used as a detector for Size Exclusion Chromatography.
Chemical formulas such as HClO4 can be divided into empirical formula, molecular formula, and structural formula.
Chemical symbols of elements in the chemical formula represent the elements present, and subscript numbers represent mole proportions of the proceeding elements.
chemical formula, such as H2O for water. This formula implies that the water molecules consist of 2 hydrogen, and 1 oxygen atoms.
The formula H2O is also the molecular formula of water.
Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms within a molecule. It is important to be able to predict and understand the molecular structure of a molecule because many of the properties of a substance are determined by its geometry.
Spectroscopy is the use of the absorption, emission, or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by atoms or molecules to qualitatively or quantitatively study the atoms or molecules, or to study physical processes. The interaction of radiation with matter can cause redirection of the radiation and transitions between the energy levels of the atoms or molecules.