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Punjab

07-SEP-2017 18:46

Punjab is a state in northwest region of India and is one of the most prosperous states.The name Punjab is made of two words Punj (Five) + Aab (Water) i.e. land of five rivers. These five rivers of Punjab are Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum. Only Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow in today's Punjab. The other two rivers are now in the state of Punjab, situated in Pakistan. The Punjab State is divided into three regions: Majha, Doaba and Malwa. Here, we are giving important information about State of Punjab, India

Punjab-lanf of river

Location

Punjab extends from the latitudes 29.30° North to 32.32° North and longitudes 73.55° East to 76.50° East. It is bounded on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the northeast by Himachal Pradesh and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan.

Physical Features

Punjab is largely a flat plain that rises gently from about 150 metres in the southwest to about 300 metres in the northeast. Physiographically, it can be divided into three parts: (i) The Shiwalik Hills in the northeast rising from about 300 to 900 metres; (ii) The zone of narrow, undulating foothills dissected by seasonal rivers terminating in the plains and not flowing into bigger waterbodies and (iii) The flat tract with fertile alluvial soils. The lowlying floodplains lie along the rivers while the slightly elevated flat uplands lie between them. Sand dunes are found in the southwest and west of the Sutlej.

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Historical Background

It is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world with a distinguished culture. Punjabi language has its origins in the Indo-European family of languages which included Persian and Latin. A land of ethnic and religious diversity, it is birth place of a number of religious movements. Some of the prominent ones include Sikhism, Buddhism and many Sufi schools of Islam.
The Indian State of Punjab was created in 1947, when the partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan's Punjab Province; the mostly Sikh eastern part became India's Punjab state. The partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence, as many Sikhs and Hindus lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east. Several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, also became part of Indian Punjab.

In 1950, two separate states were created; Punjab included the former Raj province of Punjab, while the princely states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot and Kalsia were combined into a new state, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Himachal Pradesh was created as a union territory from several princely states and Kangra District. In 1956, PEPSU was merged into Punjab state, and several northern districts of Punjab in the Himalayas were added to Himachal Pradesh.

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Punjab: At a Glance

Capital

Chandigarh

Date of formation

1 November 1966

Tourist attractions

Golden Temple, Jallianwalla Bagh, Rock Garden, Leisure Valley

Festivals

Lohri, Baisakhi, Gurpurab

Major dance and music forms

Bhangra and Gidda

Arts and crafts

Phulkari or flower embroidery; wood inlay of Hoshiarpur on black shisham wood.

Languages

Punjabi

Size

50,362 sq. km

Population (Census 2011)

27,704,236

Rivers

Beas, Sutlej, Ravi,

Forests and wildlife sanctuaries

Bir Moti Bagh, Bir Bhunderhari, Bir Dosanjh

State animal

Blackbuck

State bird

Baaz (Accipiter gentilis)

State tree

Shisham

Major crops

Wheat, gram, barley, oil seeds

No. of District

22

Punjab has diversity and uniqueness is evident in the Punjabi poetry, philosophy, spirituality, education, artistry, music, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions, values and history.

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