The Indian freedom movement is also known as the Indian Independence Movement. It was a mass movement that was initiated to rule out the British from India.
History is a record or narrative description of past events or we can say that an aggregate of past events. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events.
Timeline of Indian Freedom Movement from 1885 to 1947
1. Formation of Indian National Congress. The first session was held in Bombay on 28th December attended by 72 delegates.
2. Lord Randolph Churchill becomes Secretary of State for India.
1. Partition of Bengal announced by Curzon.
1. British India officially adopts Indian Standard Time.
2. Mahatma Gandhi coins the term Satyagraha to characterize the Non-Violence movement in South Africa.
3. Muslim league founded at Dacca by Agra Khan the Nawab of Dacca by Aga Khan the Nawab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.
1. Congress spilt at Surat session where Congress split into two part-Moderates and Extremists
2. Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Sigh were deported to Mandalay following riots in the canal colony of Punjab.
1. Khudiram Bose was executed.
2. Tilak sentenced to six years imprisonment on charges of sedition.
1. Capital of India was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
1. Bomb thrown on Lord Hardinge in Chandini Chowk, Delhi by Rashbehari Bose and Sachindra Sanyal.
1. Ghadar party formed at San Francisco to organise a rebellion in India to overthrow the British rule.
1. First World War started.
1. Returning of Mahatma Gandhi from South Africa.
1. Gandhiji formed Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad
2. Home Rule league founded by Tilak with its headquarters at Poona (Indian home rule league of India).
3. Another Home Rule League started by Annie Besant.
4. Foundation of Banaras Hindu University by Madan Mohan Malaviya, Lucknow part.
1. Mahatma Gandhi launches the Champaran Satyagraha.
2. Montague, the secretary of State for India, declares that the goal of the British government in India is the introduction of responsible government.
1. First all-India Depressed Class conference was held.
2. Rowlatt (sedition) committee submits its reports. Rowlatt Bill introduced on February 16, 1919.
1. Anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha: M. K Gandhi started campaign against Rowlatt bill and set up Satyagraha Sabha 24th February AD 1919 at Bombay. During this agitation, M.K Gandhi given famous quote “It is my firm belief that we shall obtain salvation only through suffering and not by reforms dropping on us from the English they use brute, we soul force”.
2. Jallianwala Bagh tragedy and the great Amritsar massacre.
1. First meeting of All Indian Trade Union Congress (AITUC) held at Bombay presided over by Lala Lajpat Rai.
2. Indian National Congress (INC) adopts the Non-cooperation resolution.
1. Permanent Advisory Council of Princes inaugurated; Council of State and Legislative Assembly inaugurated.
2. The Prince of Wales, later King Edward VIII, arrives in India. Upon his arrival in Bombay there is widespread agitation. He was greeted with empty streets (The agitation was non-violent.
3. T K Madhavan met Mahatma Gandhi at Tirunelveli, to discuss on Vaikom Satyagraha, a struggle against untouchability in Hindu society.
1. Chauri Chauri incident which led to the suspension of the Non-cooperation movement.
2. Second Moplah uprising, Malabar coast, Kerala.
3. Vishwa Bharati University started by Rabindranath Tagore.
1. Swarajist party founded by Motilal Nehru and others.
1. Death of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das
2. Kakori Conspiracy Case by revolutionaries
1. Appointment of the Simon Commission
1. Nehru Report for a new constitution of India.
1. All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the “fourteen points” under the leadership of Jinnah.
2. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt drop bomb in the central legislative Assembly to protest against the Public Safety Bill.
3. Jatin Das dies in Jain after 64 days of fast.
4. Lord Irwin’s announcement that the goal of British policy in India was the grant of domination status.
5. Lahore session of the Congress under Jawaharlal Nehru adopts the goal of complete independence (Poorna Swaraj) for India.
1. Jawaharlal Nehru hoists the tricolour of India on the banks of Ravi in Lahore.
2. First Independence Day observed.
3. Working committee of INC meets at Sabarmati and passed the Civil Disobediences Movement with his epic Dandi march.
4. Mahatma Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his epic Dandi march.
5. First Round table conference begins in London to consider the report of Simon Commission for the future constitutional set-up in India.
1. Gandhi Irwin pact signed. Civil Disobedience movement suspended.
2. Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Raj Guru executed (in Lahore Case).
3. Second Round Table conference begins Mahatma Gandhi arrives in London to attend it.
1. British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald announces the Communal Awards giving separate electorate to Harijans get reserved seats in place of separate electorate.
2. Gandhi’s fast unto death.
3. Poona pact signed by which the Harijans get reserved seats in place of separate electorate.
4. Third Round table Conference begins at London.
1. Elections held in India under the Act of 1935.
2. The Indian National Congress forms minsters in seven provinces.
1. Haripuran session of the Indian National Congress. Subhash Chandra Bose elected the congress president.
1. Tripuri session of Indian National Congress.
2. Subhas Chandra Bose resigns the presidentship of the Indian National Congress.
3. Second world war begins. Viceroy declares that India too is at war.
4. Congress ministries in the provinces resign against the war policy of the British Government.
5. Muslim League observes the resignation of the congress ministries as Deliverance day.
1. Lahore session of the Muslim league passes the Pakistan Resolution.
2. Viceroy Linlithgow announces the August offer.
3. Congress launches Individual Satyagraha movement.
1. Death of Rabindranath Tagore.
2. Subhas Chandra Bose escapes from India to Germany.
1. Churchill announces the Cripps Mission.
2. The Cripps mission's proposals are rejected by Congress.
3. Quit India resolution was passed by the Bombay session of the AICC, which led to the start of a historical civil disobedience movement across India.
4. Jawaharlal Nehru's daughter Indira marries a Parsi lawyer and insurgent, Feroze Gandhi against her father's wishes.
5. Indian leader, Mohandas Gandhi is arrested in Bombay by British forces.
6. Newly married couple Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi are arrested for their participation in Quit India movement.
'7. Hurricane and flooding in Bombay: 40,000 dead.
8. Indian National Army was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists (Mohan Singh) in Southeast Asia during World War II.
1. Subhas Chandra Bose tales over the leadership of Indian National Congress and proclaims formation of the ‘Provisional Government of free India’ at Singapore.
2. Karachi session of the Muslim League adopts the slogan of ‘Divide and Quit’.
3. The Japanese attack the Port of Kolkata.
4. Kushal Konwar, Indian National Congress President of Golaghat, First martyr of Quit India Movement.
1. Wavell calls Simla conferences in a bid to form the executive Council of Indian political leaders
1. Royal Air Force Mutiny of 1946 of British and Indian air force units.
2. British Prime Minister Attlee announces the Cabinet Mission
3. Wavell invites Nehru to form an interim government.
4. First Session of the Constituent Assembly
5. Nehru elected leader of the Congress Party.
6. Constituent Assembly for India meets for the first time.
1. British Prime Minister Attlee declares that the British government would leave India by June 1948.
2. Lord Mountbatten, last British viceroy and governor general of India is sworn in.
3. Mountbatten Plan for partition of India was announced.
4. Indian Independence Bill introduced in the House of Commons and passed by the British parliament on July 18, 1947.
5. War breaks out between India and Pakistan Administered Kashmir forces in Kashmir.
6. Junagadh joins the Dominion of India.
7. Air India goes international.
8. Indians got Independence
9. Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the first Prime Minister of India and unfurls the Indian tricolour on the ramparts of the Red Fort, symbolically marking the end of British colonial rule.
In the above timeline of Indian Freedom Movement from 1885 to 1947 will enhance the knowledge of the readers about the chronology of the events that happen during India’s Freedom Struggle.