What is the difference between DNA and RNA

DNA is a deoxyribonucleic acid and is a hereditary material whereas RNA is ribonucleic acid present in all living cells. Both DNA and RNA is important, if either one of these polymers fails or disappear then life would cease to exist. Without these elements protein will not be able to generate which is important for life to exist and to produce energy.
Difference between DNA and RNA
Difference between DNA and RNA

Difference Between DNA and RNA: DNA is a deoxyribonucleic acid and is a hereditary material in all living organisms. It is located in the nucleus of a cell which is known as nuclear DNA. But a small amount of DNA is also found in the mitochondria known as mtDNA or mitochondrial DNA whereas RNA is ribonucleic acid present in all living cells. It carries instructions from DNA which controls the synthesis of proteins but in some viruses RNA, instead of DNA carries the genetic information. Do you know who reported first-time nucleic acids in 1871 - Friedrich Miescher from nuclei of pus cells.

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Difference between DNA and RNA

The following are the  difference between DNA and RNA

Paramaters

DNA

RNA

Full Form

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Ribonucleic acid

Location

It occurs inside the nucleus of the cell and some cell organelles but it plants it is present in mitochondria and plant cells.

It is found in the cytoplasm of the cell but very little is found inside the nucleus.

Structure

It is a double-stranded molecule consisting of a long chain of nucleotides.

It is a single-strand helix having shorter chains of nucleotides.

Function

It stores and transfers genetic information to generate new cells and organisms.

It is used to transfer genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes to make proteins and carries the DNA blueprint’s guidelines.

Chemical Composition

It has two nucleotide strands consisting of a phosphate group, five carbon sugar (stable deoxyribose 2) and four nitrogen bases.

It is single stranded consisting of a phosphate group, five carbon sugar (less stable ribose) and four nitrogen base.

Nitrogenous Bases

Nitrogen base pairs are Adenine links to Thymine (A-T) and Cytosine links to Guanine (C-G)

Here nitrogen base pairs are Adenine links to Uracil (A-U) and Cytosine links to Guanine (C-G).

Process of Replication

DNA is self-replicating

It is synthesised from DNA when needed.

Geometry

The DNA helix geometry is in the form of B and can be damaged by exposure to ultraviolet rays.

The RNA helix geometry is in the form of A. It is more resistant to damage by ultraviolet rays.

Length

It is a long polymer chain.

It is a short polymer.

Helix Produced

DNA produces a regular helix i.e. it is spirally twisted.

It produces a secondary helix or pseudo helix as its strand may get folded at places.

Occurs as

It occurs in the form of chromosomes or chromatin fibres.

It occurs in ribosomes or forms an association with ribosomes.

Quantity

The quantity of DNA is fixed for the cell.

The quantity of RNA for a cell is variable.

Types

It is of two types: intra-nuclear and extra-nuclear.

It is of four types: m-RNA, t-RNA and rRNA.

Life Span

Life of DNA is long.

Its life is short. Some RNA’s have very shorter life but some have longer but in all its life is short.

Effect of Melting on Renaturation

After melting its renaturation is slow.

Fast

While seeing the difference between DNA and RNA we will come to know about the structure, function, stability, nitrogenous base, their unique traits etc.

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