What is the Panchsheel Agreement between India and China?
At the time of India's independence, the relationship between India and China was not as bitter as it has been since 1962. Since America favoured Pakistan at that time, India thought it is good to keep friendly relations with its neighbour China.
This is the reason that India did not strongly oppose China while it was attacking Tibet. Indian relations with China started worsening when India had given shelter to spiritual leader Dalai Lama in 1959.
Although the immediate Prime Minister Nehru tried to make good relations between the two countries through the Panchsheel agreement, however, he did not succeed and the 1962 war took place between the two countries.
Now let us know in this article, what was the Panchsheel agreement between India and China and why was it done?
The Panchsheel agreement was about mutual relations and trade between India and Tibet the territory of China.
The Panchsheel, or Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, was first formally signed on April 29, 1954, between India and the Tibet region of China. The agreement was signed between then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and China's first Premier (Prime Minister) Chou En-Lai.
The term “Panchsheel” is made from Panch + Sheel which means five principles or thoughts.
The word Panchsheel is derived from historical Buddhist inscriptions, which are the five prohibitions that determine the behavior of Buddhist monks, that is, every Buddhist person is prohibited from doing these works.
In April 1954, India, considering Tibet as part of China, entered into an agreement with China on the principle of 'Panchsheel'. The main points of the Panchsheel agreement were;
1. Peaceful co-existence
2. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
3. Mutual non-interference
4. Mutual non-aggression
5. Equality and mutual benefit
The Panchsheel Pact had removed the tension between India and China up to a great extent. After these treaties, trade, and confidence-building between India and China had gained a lot of strength. Meanwhile, slogans of the Hindi-Chinese brother were also raised.
At the beginning of the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama and his followers fled from Tibet with the help of the CIA to protect their lives in India. The Indian government gave them asylum, Just from here, the Panchsheel agreement between India and China shattered.
The agreement has the provision that "Do not interfere in each other's internal affairs.”
After this, the relationship deteriorated and amidst growing uprising from the Chinese Janata, the Chinese government had declared a unilateral war against India in order to pacify their people, citing the reason for patriotism.
Neither the army of India nor the government here prepared for this war. As a result of this, China had captured a large part of Indian land.
In this way, the Panchsheel agreement was a thought-provoking step taken to repair the economic and political relations between India and China, but China has taken the wrong advantage of it and stabbed India in the back many times.