Enrich your vocab for Bank exam: Pakistan’s Vanishing Voices

In this article, we are going to present to you an article and the difficult words within it explained with proper usages. The following article for this purpose has been taken from The Hindu (dated January 14, 2017).

Created On: Jan 16, 2017 17:49 IST

These days English plays the most important role in cracking banking examinations. That is why, the banking team if Jagranjosh.com is bringing to you an opportunity to master the English section by learning through intensive and effective practice with vocab quiz series based on the article from ‘The Hindu (dated January 14, 2017)’.

Article: Pakistan’s Vanishing Voices

Over the past few days, five Pakistani activists including the poet Salman Haider have gone missing. The incidents have left the rights groups, already under pressure from the military and extremist outfits, alarmed. Nobody has claimed responsibility, and the family members haven’t got any ransom calls. The government says it will find them, but the investigation that started after Haider’s disappearance on January 6 seems to have reached nowhere; since then four more have gone missing. Although the full facts are not available, the perception that the disappearances are somehow linked has gained credence. They were all active social media-based campaigners for human rights and critical of the military and its support for militancy. They challenged the extremist narrative propagated by the fundamentalist groups and promoted the idea of a modern, inclusive Pakistan, largely through Facebook posts and blogs. Haider was known for his strong stand on rights violations in Balochistan.

This is not the first time activists and writers critical of the military-terror complex have come under attack in Pakistan. For years both the security apparatus and militant groups have used force to silence critics. Liberal activist and author Raza Rumi, who had criticized state support for militants, was attacked by an extremist outfit in March 2014. A year later, activist Sabeen Mahmud was shot dead in Karachi after she hosted a debate on Balochistan. This time the victims are social media activists, and it is not hard to see the pattern. In Pakistan where television faces censorship and the print media is under pressure, social media platforms are a thriving space where people express views without fear. Whoever is behind the disappearances is targeting such free debates. This should be a wake-up call to the Pakistani state. Some commentators have already implicated the state, citing the pattern in the disappearances and the military’s track record in dealing with dissent. The Interior Minister has said the government “is not in the business of disappearing people”, but he has the responsibility to find out what happened to the activists. For decades Pakistan tolerated a culture of violence within its society for political and strategic benefits, but this has backfired. Liberal space is shrinking in the wake of challenges from the extremists that benefited from the state’s tolerance of violence. The government has to take bold measures to check these groups and promote free and fearless thinking if it wants the already vulnerable democratic dynamics to survive.

1. Extremist (noun): A person who holds extreme political or religious views especially people with illegal, violent and irrational views

Synonym: Fanatic, radical, zealot, fundamentalist

Antonym: Moderate, Conservative

Sentence: The right wing extremists are mainly responsible for this terror attack.

2. Alarmed (verb): Make someone feel frightened, disturbed or in danger

Synonym: Frightened, disturbed, startled, scared, unnerved

Antonym: Relaxed, cool, calm

Sentence: The government was alarmed by the sudden outbreak of the disease in the district.

3. Ransom (noun): A sum of money demanded or paid for the release of a captive

Synonym: Bribe, expiation, deliverance

Antonym: penalty, loss, hindrance

Sentence: He had to pay a heavy ransom to release his mother from the kidnappers.

4. Perception (noun): The way in which something is regarded, understood or interpreted

Synonym: Approach, attention, attitude

Antonym: Ignorance, concrete, stupidity

Sentence: His perception of gadgets is so depressing that nobody wants to talk to him regarding new technological developments.

5. Credence (noun): Belief in or acceptance of something as true

Synonym: traction, confidence, belief, faith, trust, reliance

Antonym: Denial, disbelief, distrust, fear

Sentence: Psychoanalysis finds little credence among laymen.

6. Militancy (noun): The use of a confrontational or violent method in support of a political or social cause

Synonym: Aggressiveness, hostility, antagonism, belligerence

Antonym: Calmness, peaceful

Sentence: There are growing signs of militancy among the workers of the factory.

7. Propagate (verb): Spread or promote an idea or a theory widely

Synonym: Promote, support, Inseminate, proliferate, engender

Antonym: Decrease, reduce, lessen, kill

Sentence: The French propagated the idea that the English people were mainly drunkards.

8. Apparatus (noun): The complex structure of a particular organization or a system

Synonym: Hierarchy, structure, system, framework, network

Sentence: The apparatus of government is normally very complicated in most of the countries.

9. Implicate (verb): Show someone to be involved in a crime

Synonym: Charge, accuse, cite, embroil, entangle

Antonym: Exclude, exculpate, exonerate

Sentence: He implicated his government of the murders of three federal judges.

10. Vulnerable (adjective): Exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, wither physically or emotionally

Synonym: Accessible, defenseless, liable, sensitive, susceptible

Antonym: Concealed, guarded, protected

Sentence: We were in a vulnerable position at that moment.

Question (1-5): Answer the following questions as directed

1. Which among the following is SIMILAR in meaning to the word Impudence?

  1. Pious
  2. Perceptive
  3. Ticklish
  4. Prerogative
  5. Arrogance

Sol: Option (5)

Explanation: The given word implies insolence or sauciness. This makes option (5) the right choice as the synonym among the given options.

2. Which among the following is SIMILAR in meaning to the word Resurrect?

  1. Involve
  2. Relinquish
  3. Retract
  4. Retrospect
  5. Revive

Sol: Option (5)

Explanation: The given word implies the act of reviving something to the previous level. This makes option (5) the right choice among the given options.

3. Which among the following is OPPOSITE in meaning to the word Discerning?

  1. Alarming
  2. Excruciating
  3. Exhausting
  4. Hoisting
  5. Foolish

Sol: Option (5)

Explanation: The given word means that something is judicious. So, the opposite should be something irrational or foolish. It makes option (5) the right choice among the given options.

4. Which among the following is SIMILAR in meaning to the word Impair?

  1. Restore
  2. Testify
  3. Witness
  4. Disrupt
  5. None of the above

Sol: Option (4)

Explanation: The given word implies to disturb something and prevent the same from happening. It makes option (4) the right choice as the synonym among the given options.

5. Which among the following is SIMILAR in meaning to the word Arraign?

  1. Imbue
  2. Steal
  3. Conceal
  4. Incriminate
  5. None of the above

Sol: Option (4)

Explanation: The given word implies to accuse somebody of something. It makes option (4) the right choice among the given options.

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