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GS Geography Quiz for IAS Prelims: Movements of Ice, Wind and Sea Waves

Aug 2, 2017 18:33 IST
    GS Geography Quiz for IAS Prelims Movements of Ice, Wind and Sea Waves
    GS Geography Quiz for IAS Prelims Movements of Ice, Wind and Sea Waves

    It is very important to score well in the static portion of IAS Prelims Exam syllabus. The IAS aspirant should finish the static part of the every subject first. Here, we have provided Geography questions for IAS Prelims Exam and such questions will help to check the progress of IAS preparation of the IAS aspirants.

    IAS Prelims Exam Guide

    1. Consider the following statements regarding the continental glaciers:
    1. A thick ice sheet covering a vast area of land is called a continental glacier.
    2. The continental Glaciers build up at the centre and move outward in all directions.
    3. Continental glaciers of today are found mainly in Antarctica and Greenland.

    Which of the following above statements is true?
    a. 1 and 2
    b. 2 and 3
    c. 1 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    A thick ice sheet covering a vast area of land is called a continental a glacier. The thickness of ice in such regions goes upto thousands of metres. Glaciers of this type build up at the centre and move outward in all directions. Continental glaciers of today are found mainly in Antarctica and Greenland. The precipitation in these regions occurs in the form of snow. It gets accumulated year by year because of the relatively slower rate of its melting.

    UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2017 : GS Geography Study Material

    2. Consider the following statements regarding the valley glaciers:
    1. When a mass of ice from the high mountainous regions starts moving down into the pre-existing valleys, it is called a valley glacier.
    2. Valley glaciers are quite different from the mountain glaciers.
    3. The longest glacier in India is the Siachen Glacier in Karakoram Range which is 72 kilometres long.

    Which of the following above statements is true?
    a. 1 and 2
    b. 2 and 3
    c. 1 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    When a mass of ice from the high mountainous regions starts moving down into the pre-existing valleys, it is called a valley glacier or a mountain glacier. The shape of the valley glaciers depends on the valley it occupies. Where the valley is broad, the glacier spreads outwards and where the valley is narrow, the glacier contracts. The longest glacier in India is the Siachen Glacier in Karakoram Range which is 72 kilometres long. Gangotri Glacier in Uttarakhand is 25.5 kilometres long. There are many smaller glaciers in other parts of the Himalaya. Their length varies from 5 to 10 kilometres. The two important rivers of India, the Ganga and Yamuna, originate from Gangotri and Yamunotri glaciers respectively.

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    3. Which of the following landforms created by glacial erosion?
    a. Cirque
    b. 'U' shaped valley
    c. Hanging Valley
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    As a glacier moves over the land, it drags rock fragments, gravel and sand along with it. These rock fragments become efficient erosive tools. With their help glacier scrapes and scours the surface rocks with which it comes in contact. This action of glacier leaves behind scratches and grooves on rocks.

    The landforms like Cirque, 'U' shaped valley, Hanging Valley etc are created by the glacial erosion.

    4. Snow collects at the upper end in a bowl shaped depression called:
    a. Cirque
    b. 'U' shaped valley
    c. Hanging Valley
    d. None of the above

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    Snow collects at the upper end in a bowl shaped depression, is called cirque. Layers of snow in the process of compaction and recrystallization are called firn. Sometimes the deepest parts of these hollows are occupied by accumulated-water, to form Corrie Lake (or Tarn).

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    5. Consider the following statements regarding the Hanging Valley:
    1. The Hanging Val1ey of the tributary glacier just looks like hanging downwards at the point of its confluence with the main valley.
    2. When the ice in the hanging valley melts, a waterfall is formed at the point of confluence of this stream with the main river.

    Which of the following statements is true?
    a. Only 1
    b. 1 and 2
    c. Only 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Just like tributary streams of the river, there are tributary the glaciers also which join the main glacier after moving over their mountainous path. These tributary glaciers like the main glaciers carve U - shaped valleys. However, they have less volume of ice than the main glaciers and thus their rate of erosion is less rapid. As a result, their valleys are smaller and not as deep as that of the main glacier. Due to this difference in deepening; the valley of the tributary glacier is left at a higher level than that of the main glacier. The val1ey of the tributary glacier just looks like hanging downwards at the point of its confluence with the main valley. This type of a topographical feature is cal1ed a hanging val1ey. This feature is visible when ice has melted in both the val1eys. When the ice in the hanging valley melts, a waterfall is formed at the point of confluence of this stream with the main river.

    6. When the glacier melts or retreats, it deposits its load of different parts and the deposited debris called moraines. Consider the following statements regarding the moraines:
    1. Generally, moraines have four types- terminal moraine, lateral moraine medial moraine and ground moraine.
    2. When the glacier melts, the debris is deposited at the end of the valley glacier in the form of a ridge called lateral moraine.
    3. The moraine which is deposited on either side of a glacier is called thermal moraine.

    Which of the following above statements is true?
    a. Only 1
    b. 2 and 3
    c. 1 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    When the glacier melts or retreats, it deposits its load in different parts. The debris thus deposited is called moraines. Depending upon their location in the valley moraines are of four types:- (i) terminal moraine, (ii) lateral moraine, (iii) medial moraine and (iv) ground moraine.

    Terminal Moraine: When the glacier melts, the debris is deposited at the end of the valley glacier in the form of a ridge. It is called terminal moraine. Morainic material ranges from fine clay to large angular boulders.

    Lateral moraine: The moraine which is deposited on either side of a glacier is called lateral moraine.

    Medial moraine: When two glaciers join each other their lateral moraines also join. Moraines thus formed on the confluence of two glaciers are called medial moraines.
    Ground moraine: It consists of deposits left behind in areas once covered by glaciers. It is seen only after the glacial ice has disappeared by melting.

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    7. Sand dunes are a special feature of the desert region made by wind deposition. Consider the following statements regarding the Sand Dunes:
    1. The formation of Sand Dunes are affected by the factors like amount of sand available, direction and force of wind and an obstruction in the path of the wind.
    2. If vegetation or a line of trees starts growing on the dunes they become fixed.
    3. In case there is no such obstruction, sand dunes may bury agricultural land, plains and settlements.

    Which of the following above statements is true?
    a. 1 and 2
    b. 2 and 3
    c. 1 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Sand dunes are a special feature of the desert regions. They are of different types and have a variety of shapes. The major factors affecting their formation are (a) amount of sand available (b) direction and force of wind, (c) an obstruction in the path of the wind e.g. a bush, a stone or a dead animal. As long as the wind is strong enough to carry the sand, the sand dunes are mobile and they keep on shifting from one place to another. If vegetation or a line of trees starts growing on the dunes they become fixed. They also become stationary when they are blocked by a hillock. In case there is no such obstruction, sand dunes may bury agricultural land, plains and settlements.

    8. Which of the following statements is correct regarding Loess?
    a. The surface covered by deposits of wind transported silt that has settled out from dust storms over many thousands of years, such material is known as loess.
    b. Loess is long, narrow ridges of sand that lie parallel to the direction of the prevailing winds.
    c. Loess is an isolated heap of free sand.
    d. Loess dunes are common in the western part of the Thar Desert of India.

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    In several large areas of the world, the surface is covered by deposits of wind transported silt that has settled out from dust storms over many thousands of years. This material is known as loess. Loess tends to break away along vertical cliffs whenever it is exposed by the cutting of a stream or grading of a roadway. It is also very easily eroded by running water and is subject to rapid gullying when the vegetation cover that protects it is broken. The thickest deposits of loess are in northeast china, where a layer over 30m deep is common and a maximum thickness of 100m has been measured.

    Besides China, deposits of loess occur in Mississippi Valley of North America and north of Central European Upland in Germany, Belgium and France. Loess deposits are found in Austalia also.

    9. Sea waves have a great erosive force. Consider the following statements regarding the functions of sea waves:
    1. When the sea water loaded with rock fragments and sand attack the coastal rocks it is called abrasion.
    2. The rock particles present in the water hit against each other and break into progressively smaller particles, the process is called attrition.
    3. The rocks made up of limestone are subjected to solution action by the sea waves.

    Which of the following above statements is true?
    a. 1 and 2
    b. 2 and 3
    c. 1 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Sea waves have a great erosive force. In their role of an erosional agent, they perform four functions. When the sea water loaded with rock fragments and sand attack the coastal rocks it is called abrasion. The rock particles present in the water hit against each other and break into progressively smaller particles. This process is called attrition. Thirdly the broadening of cracks and crevices in the cliffs along the coast due to the attack of the sea waves is called the hydraulic action. The rocks made up of limestone are subjected to solution action by the sea waves. All these processes help in the formation of new features on the coastal margins.

    10. Which of the following landforms created by the sea waves?
    a. Sea Cliff
    b. Sea Caves
    c. Sea Arches
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Waves, like streams, erode the coastal rocks with the help of rock fragments present in the water. Due to the continued erosion by waves, the coastline keeps retreating and a number of topographical features are formed in the process. Some of the important features made through sea wave erosion are Sea Cliff, Sea Caves, Sea Arches and Sea Stacks.

    UPSC IAS Study Material for Civil Services Prelims 2018

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