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IAS Prelims Exam 2017: ISRO and its Launches

Feb 16, 2017 18:48 IST

    Science and Technology QuestionsLike other subjects, science and technology is also an important subject of the IAS Prelims Exam syllabus. Every year, a number of questions based on the science and technology asked in the IAS Prelims Exam. It has been found that the most of the questions asked under science and technology in IAS Prelims Exam are completely based the recent technological missions of conducted in the country.  Based on the same pattern of UPSC IAS Exam, here, we have created Science and Technology questions based on the ISRO’s various missions conducted during last one year.

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    1. Recently, ISRO’s PSLV-C37 in its 39th flight, has set a new world record. Consider the following statements regarding this successful mission of PSLV:
    I. PSLV-C37 Successfully Launches 104 Satellites weighted 714 kg Cartosat-2 Series Satellite along with 103 co-passenger satellites in a Single Flight on February 15, 2017.
    II. All the 104 satellites successfully separated from the PSLV fourth stage in a predetermined sequence beginning with Cartosat-2 series satellite, followed by INS-1 and INS-2.

    Choose the correct statements:
    a. Only I
    b. Only II
    c. Both I and II
    d. Neither I nor II

    Answer: a

    Explanation:
    PSLV-C37, in its 39th flight, ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle successfully launched the 714 kg Cartosat-2 Series Satellite along with 103 co-passenger satellites today morning (February 15, 2017) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. This is the thirty eighth consecutively successful mission of PSLV.  The total weight of all the 104 satellites carried on-board PSLV-C37 was 1378 kg.
    PSLV-C37 lifted off at 0928 hrs (9:28 am) IST, as planned, from the First Launch Pad.  After a flight of 16 minutes 48 seconds, the satellites achieved a polar Sun Synchronous Orbit of 506 km inclined at an angle of 97.46 degree to the equator (very close to the intended orbit) and in the succeeding 12 minutes, all the 104 satellites successfully separated from the PSLV fourth stage in a predetermined sequence beginning with Cartosat-2 series satellite, followed by INS-1 and INS-2.  The total number of Indian satellites launched by PSLV now stands at 46.

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    2. The imagery from the Cartosat-2 series satellite will be useful for which of the following purposes?
    1. cartographic applications
    2. for attacking enemy countries during the war
    3. coastal land use and regulation
    4. utility management like road network monitoring

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only 1 and 2
    b. 1, 2 and 4
    c. 1, 3 and 4
    d. All of the above

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    The imagery from the Cartosat-2 series satellite will be useful for cartographic applications, urban and rural applications, coastal land use and regulation, utility management like road network monitoring, water distribution, creation of land use maps, change detection to bring out geographical and manmade features and various other Land Information System (LIS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) applications.  The data sets could be used for urban planning of 500 cities under the Amrut Planning Scheme.  The government initiative of 100 smart city programme in which these data sets could be used for master plan preparation and detailed geospatial data preparation for rural roads and infrastructure development.

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    3. The total 103 co-passenger satellites carried by PSLV-C37 out of which two – ISRO Nano Satellite-1 (INS-1) weighing 8.4 kg and INS-2 weighing 9.7 kg – are technology demonstration satellites from India. The remaining 101 co-passengers satellites carried were international customer satellites from which of the following countries?
    a. USA
    b. Switzerland
    c. Israel
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Of the 103 co-passenger satellites carried by PSLV-C37, two – ISRO Nano Satellite-1 (INS-1) weighing 8.4 kg and INS-2 weighing 9.7 kg – are technology demonstration satellites from India. The remaining 101 co-passenger satellites carried were international customer satellites from USA (96), The Netherlands (1), Switzerland (1), Israel (1), Kazakhstan (1) and UAE (1).

    This mission involved many technical challenges like realising the launch of a large number of satellites during a single mission within the time frame sought by the customers from abroad.  Besides, ensuring adequate separation between all the 104 satellites during their orbital injection as well as during their subsequent orbital life was yet another challenge associated with this complex mission.

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    4. India's communication satellite, GSAT-18 was inducted into the INSAT/GSAT system on October 06, 2016 from Kourou, French Guiana by Ariane-5 VA-231. Consider the following features of GSAT 18:
    I. GSAT-18 is designed to provide continuity of services on operational satellites in C-band, Extended C-band and Ku-bands.
    II. After its injection into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO), ISRO's Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan took control of GSAT-18.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. Only II
    c. Both I and II
    d. Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    India's latest communication satellite, GSAT-18 was inducted into the INSAT/GSAT system French Guiana, South America. GSAT-18 has carried 48 communication transponders to provide Services in Normal C-band, Upper Extended C-band and Ku-bands of the frequency spectrum. GSAT-18 carries Ku-band beacon as well to help in an accurately pointing ground antennas towards the satellite.

    GSAT-18 is designed to provide continuity of services on operational satellites in C-band, Extended C-band and Ku-bands. GSAT-18 was launched into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). After its injection into GTO, ISRO's Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan took control of GSAT-18 and performed the initial orbit raising maneuvers using the Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) of the satellite, placing it in circular Geostationary Orbit. The designed in-orbit operational life of GSAT-18 is about 15 years.

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    5. Consider the following statements regarding the GSLV-F05 through which the Indian weather satellite INSAT-3DR has been launched:
    I. GSLV-F05 is the tenth flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), launching INSAT-3DR, an advanced weather satellite into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO).
    II. GSLV-F05 flight is significant since it is the first operational flight of GSLV carrying Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS).

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. Only II
    c. Both I and II
    d. Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    GSLV-F05 is the tenth flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), launching INSAT-3DR, an advanced weather satellite, weighing 2211 kg into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). GSLV is designed to inject 2 - 2.5 Tonne class of satellites into GTO. The launch took place from the Second Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR), Sriharikota on September 08, 2016.

    GSLV-F05 flight is significant since it is the first operational flight of GSLV carrying Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS). The indigenously developed CUS was carried on-board for the fourth time during a GSLV flight in the GSLV-F05 flight.

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    6. The first experimental mission of ISRO’s Scramjet Engine towards the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System was successfully conducted on August 28, 2016 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. Consider the following statements regarding the test:
    I. The Scramjet engine designed by ISRO uses Hydrogen as fuel and the Oxygen from the atmospheric air as the oxidiser.
    II. This test was the maiden short duration experimental test of ISRO’s Scramjet engine with a hypersonic flight at Mach 6.
    III. ISRO’s Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV), which is an advanced sounding rocket, was the solid rocket booster used for the test of Scramjet engines at supersonic conditions.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. II and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The first experimental mission of ISRO’s Scramjet Engine towards the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System was successfully conducted on August 28, 2016 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.

    After a flight of about 300 seconds, the vehicle touched down in the Bay of Bengal, approximately 320 km from Sriharikota. The vehicle was successfully tracked during its flight from the ground stations at Sriharikota. With this flight, critical technologies such as ignition of air breathing engines at supersonic speed, holding the flame at supersonic speed, air intake mechanism and fuel injection systems have been successfully demonstrated.

    The Scramjet engine designed by ISRO uses Hydrogen as fuel and the Oxygen from the atmospheric air as the oxidiser. This test was the maiden short duration experimental test of ISRO’s Scramjet engine with a hypersonic flight at Mach 6. ISRO’s Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV), which is an advanced sounding rocket, was the solid rocket booster used for the test of Scramjet engines at supersonic conditions.  ATV carrying Scramjet engines weighed 3277 kg at lift-off.

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    7. India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its 36th flight (PSLV-C34) successfully launched Cartosat-2 Series in June 2016 from which of the following space launch places in India?
    a. Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC-SHAR), Sriharikota.
    b. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram.
    c. Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Thiruvananthapuram.
    d. ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri.

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its thirty sixth flight (PSLV-C34), launches the 727.5 kg Cartosat-2 Series Satellite for earth observation and 19 co-passenger satellites together weighing about 560 kg at lift–off into a 505 km polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO). PSLV-C34 was launched from the Second Launch Pad (SLP) of Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota on June 22, 2016. This is the fourteenth flight of PSLV in ‘XL’ configuration (with the use of solid strap-on motors).

    The co-passenger satellites are from USA, Canada, Germany and Indonesia as well as two satellites (SATHYABAMASAT and SWAYAM) from Indian University/Academic Institute. The total weight of all the 20 satellites carried onboard PSLV-C34 is about 1288 kg.

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    8. The RLV-TD was successfully flight tested on May 23, 2016 from SDSC SHAR Sriharikota validating the critical technologies. Consider the following statements regarding RLV-TD:
    I. Reusable Launch Vehicle – Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) is one of the most technologically challenging endeavors of ISRO towards developing essential technologies for a fully reusable launch vehicle to enable low cost access to space.
    II. The configuration of RLV-TD is similar to that of an aircraft and combines the complexity of both launch vehicles and aircraft.
    III. RLV-TD consists of a fuselage (body), a nose cap, double delta wings and twin vertical tails.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. II and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Reusable Launch Vehicle – Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) is one of the most technologically challenging endeavours of ISRO towards developing essential technologies for a fully reusable launch vehicle to enable low cost access to space. The configuration of RLV-TD is similar to that of an aircraft and combines the complexity of both launch vehicles and aircraft. The winged RLV-TD has been configured to act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies, namely, hypersonic flight, autonomous landing and powered cruise flight. In future, this vehicle will be scaled up to become the first stage of India’s reusable two stage orbital launch vehicle.

    RLV-TD consists of a fuselage (body), a nose cap, double delta wings and twin vertical tails. It also features symmetrically placed active control surfaces called Elevons and Rudder. This technology demonstrator was boosted to Mach no: 5 by a conventional solid booster (HS9) designed for low burn rate.  The selection of materials like special alloys, composites and insulation materials for developing an RLV-TD and the crafting of its parts is very complex and demands highly skilled manpower. Many high technology machinery and test equipment were utilised for building this vehicle.

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    9. India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its 35th flight (PSLV-C33), launched IRNSS-1G the seventh satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) from which of the following space launch places in India?
    a. ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri.
    b. Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC-SHAR), Sriharikota.
    c. ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore.
    d. Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmadabad

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its thirty-fifth flight (PSLV-C33), launched IRNSS-1G, the seventh satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) into a Sub-Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (Sub-GTO). The launch took place from the First Launch Pad (FLP) of Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota on April 28, 2016. As in the previous six launches of IRNSS satellites, PSLV-C33 uses ‘XL’ version of PSLV equipped with six strap-ons, each carrying 12 tons of propellant.

    The 'XL' configuration of PSLV is used for the thirteenth time. Besides launching six IRNSS satellites, PSLV-XL has also launched many other spacecraft including India’s Mars Orbiter spacecraft, the multi-wavelength observatory ASTROSAT, Radar Imaging satellite RISAT-1 and the Communication satellite GSAT-12. This apart, PSLV-XL has successfully placed five satellites from United Kingdom into orbit in a single commercial mission. This is the thirty-fourth consecutively successful mission of PSLV, repeatedly proving its reliability and versatility.

    10. India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its thirty-second flight (PSLV-C29), on December 16, 2015 launched six satellites of which of the following countries?
    a. Israel
    b. USA
    c. Singapore
    d. Russia

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its thirty-second flight (PSLV-C29), launched six satellites of Singapore into a 550 km circular orbit inclined at 15 degrees to the equator. Of these six satellites, TeLEOS-1 is the primary satellite weighing 400 kg whereas the other five are co-passenger satellites which include two micro-satellites and three nano-satellites. PSLV-C29 was launched from the First Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota. This is the eleventh flight of PSLV in 'core-alone' configuration (without the use of solid strap-on motors).

    PSLV-C29 Successfully Launched all the Six Satellites from Singapore from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), SHAR, Sriharikota on December 16, 2015.

    Current Affairs for IAS Prelims 2017: Science and Technology Quiz

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