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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2016 : Economic Survey 2015-16 : CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

May 28, 2016 18:12 IST

    Climate change and sustainable development is the critical issue in the talks of developments nowadays. Climate change will affect the every aspect of life in the coming times and the knowledge of these issues is very important for the UPSC IAS Prelims Exam.

    Civil Services Prelims Exam asks about these aspects of climate change which influence the human life.

    Q.1 Which of the following is/are true about intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) of India?

    1. Reducing emission intensity by 33-35%.
    2.  40% electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resource by 2030.
    3.  Complete elimination of ozone depleting substances by 2030.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: India announced its intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) which set ambitious targets for domestic efforts against climate change. Including other efforts, the country has set itself an ambitious target of reducing its emissions intensity of its gross domestic product (GDP) by 33-35 per cent by 2030, compared to 2005 levels, and of achieving 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.

    Q.2 Consider the following statements

    1. The transport sector is largest contributor to GHG emissions.
    2. Co2 concentration is higher than any other GHG.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation: The energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emissions and, within this, CO2
    emissions from combustion of fuels have the largest share.

    Q.3 Consider the following statements

    1. India has lowest per capita Income and Lower per capita Co2 emission even lower than EU.
    2. USA has highest per capita Co2 emissions and higher per capita income as compared to India.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer:  c

    Explanation: Among USA, EU, China are considered, the USA has the highest per capita CO2 emissions and per capita income while India has the lowest of both among.

    Q.4 Which of the following is/are salient features of Paris agreement?

    1. It provides transparency frame work.
    2. It establishes compliance mechanism in punitive way.
    3. It mandates contribution of financial resources by developed countries on voluntary basis.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation:  The Agreement is not mitigation-centric . The Agreement mandates that developed countries provide financial resources to developing countries. Other Parties may also contribute, but on a purely voluntary basis. The Agreement includes a robust transparency framework for both action and support. The Paris Agreement establishes a compliance mechanism, overseen by a committee of experts that operates in a non-punitive way, and is facilitative in nature.

    Q.5 Consider the following statements

    1. Paris agreement clearly differentiates implementation of mitigation actions between developed and developing countries
    2. Paris agreement will come into force only when atleast 55 parties to convention accounting for at least 55% of GHG emissions accept and approve it.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: The Paris Agreement operationalizes differentiation between developed and developing countries mitigation actions through three main elements, namely, (a) by acknowledging that peaking of emission in developing countries will take longer; (b) by calling upon developed
    countries to take the lead in mitigation actions; and (c) by calling upon support to be provided to developing countries for implementation of climate change actions, elements, namely, (a) by acknowledging that peaking of emission in developing countries will take longer; (b) by calling upon developed countries to take the lead in mitigation actions; and (c) by calling upon support to be provided to developing countries for implementation of climate change actions.

    Q.6 Which of the following is/are elements of Green finance?

    1. Banking system.
    2. Bond market.
    3. Institutional investment.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1
    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The Rio+20 document clearly states what green economy policies should result in and what they should not. While there is no universal definition of green finance, it mostly refers to financial investments flowing towards sustainable development projects and initiatives that encourage the development of a more sustainable economy (Höhne et al. 2012). Green finance includes different elements like greening the banking system, the bond market and institutional investment.

    Q.7 Which of the following is/are true about National clean energy fund (NCEF)?

    1. It is based on polluters pay principle.
    2.  Jawaharlal Nehru National solar mission is protect financed from this fund.
    3.  It is financed  by cess on produced and imported coal.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer:  d

    Explanation:  India has created a corpus called the National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) in 2010-11 out of the cess on coal produced/imported (‘polluter pays’ principle) for the purpose of financing and promoting clean energy initiatives and funding research in the area of clean energy. Some of the projects financed by this fund include innovative schemes like a green energy corridor for boosting the transmission sector, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission’s (JNNSM) installation of solar photovoltaic (SPV) lights and small capacity lights, installation of SPV water pumping systems, SPV power plants, grid-connected rooftop SPV power plants and a pilot project to assess wind power potential.

    Q.8 Which of the following is/are true about India’s INDC?

    1. Reduce emission intensity by 33-35% of GDP of 1990 level by 2030.
    2. 40% cumulative electric power installed from non fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030.
    3.  To create addition carbon sink.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:  To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent of the 2005 level by 2030.  To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel- based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF). To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent (CO2eq.) through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

    Q.9 Which of the following is/are true regarding  multilateral climate funds?

    1. Global environment facility (GEF) established as financial mechanism of UNICCC in 2011.
    2.  Green climate fund (GCF)  is financial mechanism of biodiversity and climate change convention in1992 for helping developed countries.
    3.  Clean technology fund is first largest multilateral climate funds.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. None

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is the largest,The second largest is the Clean Technology Fund (CTF). The GCF was established as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC in 2011. In 1992, when the Biodiversity and Climate Change Conventions were adopted at Rio de Janeiro, the GEF was adopted as a financial mechanism for helping developing countries meet their financing needs for achieving their climate change goals.

    Q.10 Which of the following is/are true?

    1. The major regional emissions trading scheme currently under implementation is china emission trading system.
    2. CDM projects ( clean development mechanism ) are second highest in the world.
    3.  Nearly 95% of CDM projects are being developed by private sector.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation:  The major regional emissions-trading scheme currently under implementation is the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). The EU ETS covers 28 EU countries as well as Iceland,  Liechtenstein and Norway. As on 4 January 2016, 1593 out of a total of 7685 projects registered by the CDM executive board are from India, which so far is the second highest in the world with China taking the lead with 3764 projects registered. About 90-95 per cent of the CDM projects are being developed by the private sector.

    Q.11 Which of the following is/are true about domestic actions on climate change?

    1. Prime minister council on climate change has directed mission under NAPCC to enhance and reprioritize them besides setting up of new missions.
    2. New mission on climate change and health is currently under formulation.
    3. National expert group on climate change and health had been constituted.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change (PMCCC) has directed the missions under the NAPCC to enhance their ambition in respect of adaptation, mitigation and capacity building and reprioritize them, besides recommending the setting up of some new missions in addition to the existing eight. Considering the adverse impacts that climate change could have on health, a new Mission on Climate Change and Health is currently under formulation and a National Expert Group on Climate Change and Health has been constituted. The National Mission on Coastal Areas (NMCA) will prepare an integrated coastal resource management plan and map vulnerabilities along the entire (nearly 7000-km-long) shoreline. The Ministry of Earth Sciences will provide it scientific and technical advice and the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) will manage and implement the NMCA.

    Q.12 Consider the following statements  

    1. State action plan on climate change are enclosed by national steering committee on climate change.
    2. National adaption fund for climate change does not support on going schemes of centre and state government.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation:  The State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC) aim to create institutional capacities and implement sectoral activities to address climate change. The SAPCCs of 32 states and UTs have been endorsed by the National Steering Committee on Climate Change (NSCCC) at the MoEF&CC. A National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) has been established with a budget provision of I350 crore for the year 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. The overall aim of the fund is to support concrete adaptation activities that reduce the adverse effects of climate change facing Communities, sectors and states but are not covered under the ongoing schemes of state and central governments.

    Q.13 Consider the following statements regarding National Offshore wind energy policy 2015: sector lending for scheduled commercial banks.

    1. It endorses setting up of wind power projects in offshore up to 200 nautical miles from base line.
    2. RBI has issued guidelines for inclusion of renewable energy in priority

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: The National Offshore Wind Energy Policy 2015 to help in offshore wind energy development, including setting up of offshore wind power projects and research and development activities in waters, in or adjacent to the country, up to the seaward distance of 200 nautical miles exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the country from the base line. The Reserve Bank of India has issued guidelines for the inclusion of renewable energy in priority sector lending for scheduled commercial banks.

    Q.14 Consider the following statements

    1. National clean energy fund (NCEF) only research in the area of clean energy.
    2. Viability gap funding (VGF) is also provided for Namami Gange.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation: National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) which is supported by the cess on coal was created for the purposes of financing and promoting clean energy initiatives, VGF is also being provided for Namami Gange or the Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission.

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