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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam: Physical Geography of India NIOS Questions: HUMAN SETTLEMENT

Jun 1, 2016 14:50 IST

    UPSC Civil Services (IAS) Exam 2016 Notification is just released by Union Public Service Commission and the candidates are required to understand the requirement of Civil Services Prelims Examination on order to qualify the IAS Prelim Exam. It requires a special focus on the IAS Exam Preparation and endless practice of the Subject Questions and Model Test Papers.

    Geography is one of the important components of the IAS Syllabus which covers the major share of the IAS Prelims Questions. The General Studies Paper I of Civil Services IAS Prelims Exam consist of Geography Questions ranges from 15 to 25 every year. So, the Civil Services aspirants have to do Preparation of GS Geography in a manner so, that they can score better in IAS Prelims Exam.

    Here, we have provided such practice questions of Physical Geography which will help aspirants to check their level of Preparation of IAS Prelims Exam 2016.

    1.With reference to Human Settlements in India which of the following is not consider as one of the types of rural settlements:

    a.Nucleated settlement

    b.Complete- settlements

    c.Dispersed settlement

    d.Hemleted settlement

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Geographers have suggested various schemes of classification. If we group settlements found all over the country, these can broadly be grouped under four categories:

    •Compact/clustered/nucleated settlement
    •Semi-compact/Semi-clustered/fragmented settlement
    •Hemleted settlement
    •Dispersed settlement

    2.In which of the following types of rural settlements in which all the dwellings are concentrated in one central sites and those inhabited area is distinct and separated from the farms and pastures?

    a.Hemleted settlement

    b.Nucleated settlement

    c.Compact settlement

    d.Semi-compact settlement

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    As the name suggests, the Compact settlements have closely built up area. Therefore in such settlements all the dwellings are concentrated in one central sites and these inhabited area is distinct and separated from the farms and pastures. Maximum settlements of our country come under this category. They are spread over almost every part of the country.

    3. Consider the following statements regarding the Compact settlements in India:

    I.These settlements are distributed over the entire northern Indo-Ganga plain (from Punjab in the north-west to West Bengal in the east), Orissa coast, basins of Mahanadi in Chhattisgarh.

    II.Sometimes people live in compact settlement for security or defence purpose.

    III.In Rajasthan also people live in compact settlement because of the scarce availability of cultivable land and water body.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    These settlements are distributed over the entire northern Indo-Ganga plain (from Punjab in the north-west to West Bengal in the east), Orissa coast, basins of Mahanadi in Chhattisgarh, coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, cauvery delta of Tamil Nadu, Maidaus of Karnataka, lower Assam and Tripura, in the valleys of Shiwaliks etc. Sometimes people live in compact settlement for security or defence purpose. The greatest example of this type is in Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan also people live in compact settlement because of the scarce availability of cultivable land and water body. Therefore, they want to make maximum use of available natural resources.

    4.Which of the following is correctly matched?

     

    Patterns of Rural Settlements

    Description

    a

    Linear Pattern

    Accessibility to farms and fields and connectivity to other settlements lead to rectangular shape of settlements.

    b

    Rectangular

    It may have a single row of houses arranged along the main artery.

    c

    Radial Pattern

    In this type, a number of streets converge on one centre which may be a source of water (pond, well), a temple or mosque, a centre of commercial activity or simply an open space.

    d

    Square

    Such a pattern is associated with villages lying at the crossing of cart tracks or roads and also related to features restricting the extension of the village outside a square space.

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    The rural settlements have a definite pattern due to closely built area and intervening street patterns.
    Linear Pattern: It is commonly found along main roads, railways, streams, etc. It may have a single row of houses arranged along the main artery.

    Rectangular Pattern: This is a very common type which develops around the rectangular shape of agricultural fields as it is common to find a system of land measurement based on square units.

    Square Pattern: This is basically a variant of rectangular type. Such a pattern is associated with villages lying at the crossing of cart tracks or roads and also related to features restricting the extension of the village outside a square space.

    Circular Pattern: In the upper Doab and Trans – Yamuna districts, Malwa region, Punjab and Gujarat, large villages are characterized by a very high degree of compactness.

    5.Consider the following statements regarding the semi-compact settlements:

    I.Semi-compact settlements are characterized by a small but compact nuclear around which hamlets are dispersed.

    II.These settlements are found both in plains and plateaus depending upon the environmental conditions prevailing in that area.

    III.Such settlements are situated along streams in Manipur Mandla and Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh, and Rajgarh district of Chhattisgarh.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Such settlements are characterized by a small but compact nuclear around which hamlets are dispersed. It covers more area than the compact settlements. These settlements are found both in plains and plateaus depending upon the environmental conditions prevailing in that area. Such settlements are situated along streams in Manipur Mandla and Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh, and Rajgarh district of Chhattisgarh. Different tribal groups inhabit such settlements in the Chhota Nagpur region.

    6.Which of the following pattern does not belongs to semi-compact settlements?

    a.Checker-board pattern

    b.Elongated pattern

    c.Circular pattern

    d.Fan-shaped pattern

    Answer: c

    Explanation: 

    Like, compact settlements, semi-compact settlements may also have different patterns:

    Checker Board Pattern: This is a type of settlement found generally at the junction of two roads. The village streets meet each other at an angle or are parallel to each other.

    Elongated Pattern: Such settlement occurs as a result of elongation of the rectangular pattern due to influence of site features. For instance, in the Ganga plains, in areas liable to inundation, the rectangular pattern becomes unusually elongated along the high ground.

    Hamleted Settlements: These types of settlements are fragmented into several small units. The main settlement does not have much influence on the other units.

    Fan Shaped Pattern: This is seen where some focal points or line is situated at one end of the village. A focal object may be a tank a riverside, a road, an orchard, a well or even a place of worship. Such patterns are common in the delta region where the dwellings simply follow the fan shaped profile of the delta as in the case of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, etc.

    7.Consider the following statements regarding Dispersed settlements:

    I.Dispersed Settlements is also known as isolated settlements which vary from two to seven huts.

    II Dispersed Settlements is characterized by units of small size which may consist of a single house to a small group of houses.

    III.Such types of settlements are found in tribal areas of central part of India covering Chhota Nagpur plateau, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, etc.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Dispersed Settlements is also known as isolated settlements. Here the settlement is characterized by units of small size which may consist of a single house to a small group of houses. It varies from two to seven huts. Therefore, in this type, hamlets are scattered over a vast area and does not have any specific pattern. Such type of settlements is found in tribal areas of central part of India covering Chhota Nagpur plateau, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, etc. Such patterns are also common in the hills of north Bengal, Jammu & Kashmir, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

    8.Which of the following factors does not affects the Human Settlements in India?

    a.Physical factors

    b.Ethnic or Cultural factors

    c.Economic factors

    d.Historical factors

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    There are three factors that influence the type of settlements in India. These factors are (i) Physical (ii) Ethnic or cultural and (iii) Historical or defence.

    Physical Factors: These include relief, altitude, soil capability, climate, drainage, ground water level, etc. These factors influence the type and spacing of dwelling or instance, in dry regions of Rajasthan, water is a crucial factor and, therefore, houses are situated along a pond or well which guides the compactness of the settlement.

    Ethnic and Cultural Factors: These include aspects like caste, community, ethnicity and religion. In India it is commonly found that the main land owning caste resides at the centre of the village and the other service providing castes on the periphery. This leads to social segregation and fragmentation of a settlement into several units.

    Historical or Defence Factors: In the past, mostly border areas of north- western plains were conquered or attacked frequently by outsiders. For a long time, apart from attack from outsiders, there had been continuous fight between princely states and kingdom within the country therefore; security concerns favoured the evolution of nucleated settlements.

    9.As per the Census of India which of the following conditions must satisfy to designate an area as an urban settlement:

    I.All places with a municipality corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee etc.

    II.A minimum population of 5000 out of which at least 75 percent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural sector

    III.A density of population of at least 4,000 persons per square kilometre

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Apart from the above conditions, the direction of census operation in states and Union Territories were allowed to include in consultation with the state governments and Union Territory administration and the census commissioner of India, some places having distinct urban characteristics as urban even if such places did not strictly satisfy all the criteria mentioned under category (b). Such cases include major project colonies, railway colonies, areas of intensive industrial development, important tourist centres, etc.

    10.The urban settlements which satisfy the condition that all places with a municipality corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee etc. are known as:

    a.Statutory Towns

    b.Census Towns

    c.Both a and b

    d.Neither a nor b

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    There are two broad groups of town or urban settlement. The places
    which satisfy the conditions that all places with a municipality corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee etc. are known a statutory towns where as the condition of an area having a minimum population of 5000 out of which at least 75 percent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural sector and the density of population of at least 4,000 persons per square kilometre is known as the census town.

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