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Education Development Index (EDI) 2012-13 released by NEUPA

Dec 9, 2013 15:28 IST

The annual Education Development Index (EDI) 2012-13 was released on 6 December 2013 by the National University of Education Planning and Administration (NEUPA). The EDI comprises of four parameters: access, infrastructure, teachers and outcomes.

According to the EDI rankings prepared by NEUPA on the basis of statistics collected by the District Information System for Education (DISE), Lakshadweep has retained its top position with a composite EDI score of 0.712.

Composite EDI score is prepared by the NEUPA taking into account both the performances in primary and upper primary levels.

Lakshadweep is followed by Puducherry (0.696), Tamil Nadu (0.683), Sikkim (0.672) and Karnataka (0.661).

Among the BIMARU States, the downward slide continues for Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan except Bihar which has recovered a bit.

Uttar Pradesh has slipped from 32nd in 2011-12 to 34th in 2012-13 with an EDI score of 0.508. Madhya Pradesh slipped from 26th to 28th slot with an EDI score of 0.552. Rajasthan slipped from 23rd position to 25th with an EDI score of 0.572.

Other Notable highlights of the EDI Report
• The most remarkable recovery among the northern states is made by Punjab. It has recovered from 13th position to 6th in 2012-13 with an EDI score of 0.647.
• Gujarat has slipped from 9th in 201-12 to 18th in 2012-13 with an EDI score of 0.591.
• Among the southern states the biggest decline has been of Kerala. It has slipped from 7th in 2011-12 to 14th in 2012-13 with an EDI score of 0.603.
• The reason for overall poor ranking of Kerala has been on account of reverses in primary education. In primary education, the state's rank went down to 20th from sixth in 2011-12.
• Delhi slipped from 6th in 2011-12 to 11th in 2012-13 in overall ranking with an EDI score of 0.627.
• Maharashtra has shown consistency retaining its 8th with an EDI score of 0.635.

TOP FIVE STATES

LOWER FIVE STATES

STATES

EDI SCORE

STATES

EDI SCORE

1. Lakshadweep

0.712

31. West Bengal

0.527

2. Puducherry

0.696

32. Assam

0.527

3. Tamil Nadu

0.683

33. Goa

0.520

4. Sikkim

0.672

34. Uttar Pradesh

0.508

5. Karnataka

0.661

35. Jharkhand

0.452

A Brief Analysis
The rankings reflect the achievements of the states in the education sector. Variety of indicators presented in the flash statistics revealed improvement in all the components of universal elementary education including average annual drop-out rate and retention at primary level of education. Moreover, more schools now have drinking water and toilet facility and other necessary infrastructure in school than in the previous year.
The EDI rankings reflect that there remains huge gap between the southern and the northern region. When the EDI of southern and northern States is compared, it indicates that the southern states have improved leaps and bound after the enactment of the Right to Education (RTE) Act. However, the northern States like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and others despite their best efforts have proved to be no match.

Background
Education Development Index (EDI) is a joint effort of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India and the National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA).

Ranking of States on the basis of EDI started in 2005-06.

The purpose of EDI is to summarize various aspects related to input, process and outcome indicators and to identify geographical areas that lag behind in the educational development.
Initially 24 indicators were indentified for computing EDI. These indicators were based on the data collected by the District Information System for Education (DISE).
In 2009, the indicators for computing EDI were revised from 24 to 29. These indicators have been grouped under four areas namely Access, Infrastructure, Teacher and Outcome.

Methodology

After data provided by DISE is collected and cleaned, each indicator is normalised by using the following formula:

Upon receiving normalised values, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to decide the factor loading and weights.
In case of a few variables, policy options were explored to identify the best values instead of based on the observed values. Some of these variables are: percentage of schools with pupil-teacher and students-classroom ratio above 30 and 35 (best value, zero), percentage of teachers without professional qualification (best value, zero) etc.

List of Indicators in EDI

COMPONENT

INDICATOR

ACCESS

Density of Schools per 10 Sq. Km

Availability of schools per 1000 child population

Ratio of primary to Upper Primary Schools/Sections

INFRASTRUCTURE

Percentage of Schools with Student-Classroom Ratio: Primary >30 and Upper-Primary > 35

Percentage of Schools with 1:1 Classroom-Teacher Ratio

Percentage of Schools with Drinking Water facility

Percentage of Schools with Boys Toilet

Percentage of Schools without Girls Toilets

Percentage of Schools Required and have Ramp

Percentage of Schools with Kitchen-Shed ( Government & Aided Schools)

TEACHER

Percentage of schools with female teachers ( in schools with 2 and more teachers)

Percentage of Schools with Pupil-Teacher Ratio: Primary >30 & Upper Primary > 35

Percentage of Single-Teacher Schools

Teachers without Professional Qualification

OUTCOME

Average number of instructional days -Upper Primary

Average number of Instructional days

Average working hours for teachers

Percentage of change in enrollment in Gov schools over the previous year

Gross Enrollment Ratio

Participation of SC children: Percentage of SC Population (2001 census): Percentage of SC Enrollment

Participation of ST children: Percentage of ST Population (2001 census): Percentage of  ST Enrollment

Participation of Muslim children: Percentage of Muslim Population (2001 census : Percentage of Muslim Enrollment

Ratio of Girls Enrollment to Boys Enrollment

Drop-out rate

Transition Rate for primary to upper primary level

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